Source code for picamera.camera

# vim: set et sw=4 sts=4 fileencoding=utf-8:
#
# Python camera library for the Rasperry-Pi camera module
# Copyright (c) 2013-2017 Dave Jones <dave@waveform.org.uk>
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
#
#     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
#       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
#     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
#       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
#       documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#     * Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the
#       names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products
#       derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
# AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
# ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
# LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
# CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
# SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
# INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
# CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
# ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
# POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

from __future__ import (
    unicode_literals,
    print_function,
    division,
    absolute_import,
    )

# Make Py2's str equivalent to Py3's
str = type('')

import warnings
import datetime
import mimetypes
import ctypes as ct
import threading
from fractions import Fraction
from operator import itemgetter, and_
from functools import reduce
from collections import namedtuple

from . import bcm_host, mmal, mmalobj as mo
from .exc import (
    PiCameraError,
    PiCameraValueError,
    PiCameraRuntimeError,
    PiCameraClosed,
    PiCameraNotRecording,
    PiCameraAlreadyRecording,
    PiCameraMMALError,
    PiCameraDeprecated,
    PiCameraFallback,
    )
from .encoders import (
    PiVideoFrame,
    PiVideoEncoder,
    PiRawVideoEncoder,
    PiCookedVideoEncoder,
    PiRawOneImageEncoder,
    PiRawMultiImageEncoder,
    PiCookedOneImageEncoder,
    PiCookedMultiImageEncoder,
    )
from .renderers import (
    PiPreviewRenderer,
    PiOverlayRenderer,
    PiNullSink,
    )
from .color import Color

try:
    from RPi import GPIO
except ImportError:
    # Can't find RPi.GPIO so just null-out the reference
    GPIO = None


def docstring_values(values, indent=8):
    """
    Formats a dictionary of values for inclusion in a docstring.
    """
    return ('\n' + ' ' * indent).join(
        "* ``'%s'``" % k
        for (k, v) in
        sorted(values.items(), key=itemgetter(1)))


class PiCameraMaxResolution(object):
    """
    Singleton representing the maximum resolution of the camera module.
    """
PiCameraMaxResolution = PiCameraMaxResolution()


class PiCameraMaxFramerate(object):
    """
    Singleton representing the maximum framerate of the camera module.
    """
PiCameraMaxFramerate = PiCameraMaxFramerate()


PiCameraConfig = namedtuple('PiCameraConfig', (
    'sensor_mode',
    'clock_mode',
    'resolution',
    'framerate',
    'isp_blocks',
    'colorspace',
))


[docs]class PiCamera(object): """ Provides a pure Python interface to the Raspberry Pi's camera module. Upon construction, this class initializes the camera. The *camera_num* parameter (which defaults to 0) selects the camera module that the instance will represent. Only the Raspberry Pi compute module currently supports more than one camera. The *sensor_mode*, *resolution*, *framerate*, *framerate_range*, *clock_mode*, and *isp_blocks* parameters provide initial values for the :attr:`sensor_mode`, :attr:`resolution`, :attr:`framerate`, :attr:`framerate_range`, :attr:`clock_mode`, and :attr:`isp_blocks` attributes of the class (these attributes are all relatively expensive to set individually, hence setting them all upon construction is a speed optimization). Please refer to the attribute documentation for more information and default values. The *stereo_mode* and *stereo_decimate* parameters configure dual cameras on a compute module for sterescopic mode. These parameters can only be set at construction time; they cannot be altered later without closing the :class:`PiCamera` instance and recreating it. The *stereo_mode* parameter defaults to ``'none'`` (no stereoscopic mode) but can be set to ``'side-by-side'`` or ``'top-bottom'`` to activate a stereoscopic mode. If the *stereo_decimate* parameter is ``True``, the resolution of the two cameras will be halved so that the resulting image has the same dimensions as if stereoscopic mode were not being used. The *led_pin* parameter can be used to specify the GPIO pin which should be used to control the camera's LED via the :attr:`led` attribute. If this is not specified, it should default to the correct value for your Pi platform. You should only need to specify this parameter if you are using a custom DeviceTree blob (this is only typical on the `Compute Module`_ platform). No preview or recording is started automatically upon construction. Use the :meth:`capture` method to capture images, the :meth:`start_recording` method to begin recording video, or the :meth:`start_preview` method to start live display of the camera's input. Several attributes are provided to adjust the camera's configuration. Some of these can be adjusted while a recording is running, like :attr:`brightness`. Others, like :attr:`resolution`, can only be adjusted when the camera is idle. When you are finished with the camera, you should ensure you call the :meth:`close` method to release the camera resources:: camera = PiCamera() try: # do something with the camera pass finally: camera.close() The class supports the context manager protocol to make this particularly easy (upon exiting the :keyword:`with` statement, the :meth:`close` method is automatically called):: with PiCamera() as camera: # do something with the camera pass .. versionchanged:: 1.8 Added *stereo_mode* and *stereo_decimate* parameters. .. versionchanged:: 1.9 Added *resolution*, *framerate*, and *sensor_mode* parameters. .. versionchanged:: 1.10 Added *led_pin* parameter. .. versionchanged:: 1.11 Added *clock_mode* parameter, and permitted setting of resolution as appropriately formatted string. .. versionchanged:: 1.13 Added *framerate_range* parameter. .. versionchanged:: 1.14 Positional arguments are now deprecated; all arguments to the constructor should be specified as keyword-args. .. _Compute Module: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/computemodule/cmio-camera.md """ CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT = 0 CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT = 1 CAMERA_CAPTURE_PORT = 2 MAX_RESOLUTION = PiCameraMaxResolution # modified by PiCamera.__init__ MAX_FRAMERATE = PiCameraMaxFramerate # modified by PiCamera.__init__ DEFAULT_ANNOTATE_SIZE = 32 CAPTURE_TIMEOUT = 60 SENSOR_MODES = { 'ov5647': { 1: mo.PiSensorMode('1080p', (1, 30), full_fov=False), 2: mo.PiSensorMode('2592x1944', (1, 15), still=True), 3: mo.PiSensorMode('2592x1944', (1/6, 1), still=True), 4: mo.PiSensorMode('1296x972', (1, 42)), 5: mo.PiSensorMode('1296x730', (1, 49)), 6: mo.PiSensorMode('VGA', (42, 60)), 7: mo.PiSensorMode('VGA', (60, 90)), }, 'imx219': { 1: mo.PiSensorMode('1080p', (1/10, 30), full_fov=False), 2: mo.PiSensorMode('3280x2464', (1/10, 15), still=True), 3: mo.PiSensorMode('3280x2464', (1/10, 15), still=True), 4: mo.PiSensorMode('1640x1232', (1/10, 40)), 5: mo.PiSensorMode('1640x922', (1/10, 40)), 6: mo.PiSensorMode('720p', (40, 90), full_fov=False), 7: mo.PiSensorMode('VGA', (40, 90), full_fov=False), }, } METER_MODES = { 'average': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMETERINGMODE_AVERAGE, 'spot': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMETERINGMODE_SPOT, 'backlit': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMETERINGMODE_BACKLIT, 'matrix': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMETERINGMODE_MATRIX, } EXPOSURE_MODES = { 'off': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_OFF, 'auto': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_AUTO, 'night': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_NIGHT, 'nightpreview': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_NIGHTPREVIEW, 'backlight': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_BACKLIGHT, 'spotlight': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_SPOTLIGHT, 'sports': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_SPORTS, 'snow': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_SNOW, 'beach': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_BEACH, 'verylong': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_VERYLONG, 'fixedfps': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_FIXEDFPS, 'antishake': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_ANTISHAKE, 'fireworks': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_EXPOSUREMODE_FIREWORKS, } FLASH_MODES = { 'off': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_FLASH_OFF, 'auto': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_FLASH_AUTO, 'on': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_FLASH_ON, 'redeye': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_FLASH_REDEYE, 'fillin': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_FLASH_FILLIN, 'torch': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_FLASH_TORCH, } AWB_MODES = { 'off': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_OFF, 'auto': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_AUTO, 'sunlight': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_SUNLIGHT, 'cloudy': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_CLOUDY, 'shade': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_SHADE, 'tungsten': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_TUNGSTEN, 'fluorescent': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_FLUORESCENT, 'incandescent': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_INCANDESCENT, 'flash': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_FLASH, 'horizon': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_AWBMODE_HORIZON, } IMAGE_EFFECTS = { 'none': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_NONE, 'negative': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_NEGATIVE, 'solarize': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_SOLARIZE, # The following don't work #'posterize': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_POSTERIZE, #'whiteboard': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_WHITEBOARD, #'blackboard': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_BLACKBOARD, 'sketch': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_SKETCH, 'denoise': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_DENOISE, 'emboss': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_EMBOSS, 'oilpaint': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_OILPAINT, 'hatch': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_HATCH, 'gpen': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_GPEN, 'pastel': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_PASTEL, 'watercolor': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_WATERCOLOUR, 'film': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_FILM, 'blur': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_BLUR, 'saturation': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_SATURATION, 'colorswap': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_COLOURSWAP, 'washedout': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_WASHEDOUT, 'posterise': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_POSTERISE, 'colorpoint': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_COLOURPOINT, 'colorbalance': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_COLOURBALANCE, 'cartoon': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_CARTOON, 'deinterlace1': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_DEINTERLACE_DOUBLE, 'deinterlace2': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_IMAGEFX_DEINTERLACE_ADV, } DRC_STRENGTHS = { 'off': mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_DRC_STRENGTH_OFF, 'low': mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_DRC_STRENGTH_LOW, 'medium': mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_DRC_STRENGTH_MEDIUM, 'high': mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_DRC_STRENGTH_HIGH, } RAW_FORMATS = { 'yuv', 'rgb', 'rgba', 'bgr', 'bgra', } STEREO_MODES = { 'none': mmal.MMAL_STEREOSCOPIC_MODE_NONE, 'side-by-side': mmal.MMAL_STEREOSCOPIC_MODE_SIDE_BY_SIDE, 'top-bottom': mmal.MMAL_STEREOSCOPIC_MODE_BOTTOM, } CLOCK_MODES = { 'reset': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_TIMESTAMP_MODE_RESET_STC, 'raw': mmal.MMAL_PARAM_TIMESTAMP_MODE_RAW_STC, } ISP_BLOCKS = { 'black-level': 1 << 2, 'lens-shading': 1 << 3, 'white-balance': 1 << 5, 'bad-pixel': 1 << 7, 'crosstalk': 1 << 9, 'demosaic': 1 << 11, 'gamma': 1 << 18, 'sharpening': 1 << 22, } COLORSPACES = { 'auto': mmal.MMAL_COLOR_SPACE_UNKNOWN, 'jfif': mmal.MMAL_COLOR_SPACE_JPEG_JFIF, 'bt601': mmal.MMAL_COLOR_SPACE_ITUR_BT601, 'bt709': mmal.MMAL_COLOR_SPACE_ITUR_BT709, } _METER_MODES_R = {v: k for (k, v) in METER_MODES.items()} _EXPOSURE_MODES_R = {v: k for (k, v) in EXPOSURE_MODES.items()} _FLASH_MODES_R = {v: k for (k, v) in FLASH_MODES.items()} _AWB_MODES_R = {v: k for (k, v) in AWB_MODES.items()} _IMAGE_EFFECTS_R = {v: k for (k, v) in IMAGE_EFFECTS.items()} _DRC_STRENGTHS_R = {v: k for (k, v) in DRC_STRENGTHS.items()} _STEREO_MODES_R = {v: k for (k, v) in STEREO_MODES.items()} _CLOCK_MODES_R = {v: k for (k, v) in CLOCK_MODES.items()} _ISP_BLOCKS_R = {v: k for (k, v) in ISP_BLOCKS.items()} _COLORSPACES_R = {v: k for (k, v) in COLORSPACES.items()} __slots__ = ( '_used_led', '_led_pin', '_camera', '_camera_config', '_camera_exception', '_revision', '_preview', '_preview_alpha', '_preview_layer', '_preview_fullscreen', '_preview_window', '_splitter', '_splitter_connection', '_encoders_lock', '_encoders', '_overlays', '_raw_format', '_image_effect_params', '_exif_tags', ) def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): options = self._parse_options(args, kwargs) self._camera = None self._camera_config = None self._camera_exception = None self._preview = None self._preview_alpha = 255 self._preview_layer = 2 self._preview_fullscreen = True self._preview_window = None self._splitter = None self._splitter_connection = None self._encoders_lock = threading.Lock() self._encoders = {} self._overlays = [] self._raw_format = 'yuv' self._image_effect_params = None self._exif_tags = {} self._used_led = None self._led_pin = None bcm_host.bcm_host_init() try: self._init_revision(options) old_config, new_config = self._init_config(options) self._init_led(options) self._init_camera(options) self._configure_camera(old_config, new_config) self._init_preview() self._init_splitter() self._camera.enable() self._init_defaults() except: self.close() raise else: mimetypes.add_type('application/h264', '.h264', False) mimetypes.add_type('application/mjpeg', '.mjpg', False) mimetypes.add_type('application/mjpeg', '.mjpeg', False) @staticmethod def _parse_options(args, kwargs): """ Parse the constructor options. In future versions we'll only support keyword args; for now (for backwards compatibility) we'll allow the positional args that we previously accepted but raise a deprecation warning for each. """ options = { # with defaults 'camera_num': 0, 'stereo_mode': 'none', 'stereo_decimate': False, 'resolution': None, 'framerate': None, 'sensor_mode': 0, 'led_pin': None, 'clock_mode': 'reset', 'framerate_range': None, 'isp_blocks': None, 'colorspace': 'auto', } arg_names = ( 'camera_num', 'stereo_mode', 'stereo_decimate', 'resolution', 'framerate', 'sensor_mode', 'led_pin', 'clock_mode', 'framerate_range', ) for arg_name, arg in zip(arg_names, args): warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'Specifying %s as a non-keyword argument is ' 'deprecated' % arg_name)) options[arg_name] = arg for arg_name in options: options[arg_name] = kwargs.pop(arg_name, options[arg_name]) if kwargs: raise TypeError( 'PiCamera.__init__ got an unexpected keyword ' 'argument %r' % kwargs.popitem()[0]) return options def _init_revision(self, options): """ Query the firmware for the attached camera revision; older firmwares can't return the revision but only support the OV5647 sensor so we can assume that revision in such a case. This is also where the placeholder objects for MAX_RESOLUTION and MAX_FRAMERATE are replaced with their actual values """ with mo.MMALCameraInfo() as camera_info: camera_num = options['camera_num'] info = camera_info.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_INFO] revision = 'ov5647' if camera_info.info_rev > 1: revision = info.cameras[camera_num].camera_name.decode('ascii') if PiCamera.MAX_RESOLUTION is PiCameraMaxResolution: PiCamera.MAX_RESOLUTION = mo.PiResolution( info.cameras[camera_num].max_width, info.cameras[camera_num].max_height, ) if PiCamera.MAX_FRAMERATE is PiCameraMaxFramerate: if revision.lower() == 'ov5647': PiCamera.MAX_FRAMERATE = 90 else: PiCamera.MAX_FRAMERATE = 120 self._revision = revision @classmethod def _init_config(cls, options): """ Construct initial and desired configurations to pass to the :meth:`_configure_camera` method. The initial configuration is mostly hard-coded defaults. The desired configuration comes from the specified options. """ if options['resolution'] is None: # Get screen resolution w = ct.c_uint32() h = ct.c_uint32() if bcm_host.graphics_get_display_size(0, w, h) == -1: w = 1280 h = 720 else: w = int(w.value) h = int(h.value) resolution = mo.PiResolution(w, h) elif options['resolution'] is PiCameraMaxResolution: resolution = cls.MAX_RESOLUTION else: resolution = mo.to_resolution(options['resolution']) if options['framerate_range'] is None: if options['framerate'] is None: framerate = 30 elif options['framerate'] is PiCameraMaxFramerate: framerate = cls.MAX_FRAMERATE else: framerate = mo.to_fraction(options['framerate']) elif options['framerate'] is not None: raise PiCameraValueError( "Can't specify framerate and framerate_range") else: try: low, high = options['framerate_range'] except TypeError: raise PiCameraValueError( "framerate_range must have (low, high) values") if low is PiCameraMaxFramerate: low = cls.MAX_FRAMERATE if high is PiCameraMaxFramerate: high = cls.MAX_FRAMERATE framerate = (mo.to_fraction(low), mo.to_fraction(high)) try: clock_mode = cls.CLOCK_MODES[options['clock_mode']] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError( 'Invalid clock mode: %s' % options['clock_mode']) try: colorspace = cls.COLORSPACES[options['colorspace']] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError( 'Invalid colorspace: %s' % options['colorspace']) all_blocks = set(cls.ISP_BLOCKS.keys()) if options['isp_blocks'] is None: isp_blocks = 0 else: isp_blocks = set(options['isp_blocks']) invalid = isp_blocks - all_blocks if invalid: raise PiCameraValueError( 'Invalid ISP block: %s' % invalid.pop()) isp_blocks = reduce(and_, (~v for k, v in cls.ISP_BLOCKS.items() if k not in isp_blocks), 0xFFFFFFFF) old_config = PiCameraConfig( sensor_mode=0, clock_mode=clock_mode, resolution=cls.MAX_RESOLUTION, framerate=30, isp_blocks=0, colorspace=mmal.MMAL_COLOR_SPACE_UNKNOWN) new_config = PiCameraConfig( sensor_mode=options['sensor_mode'], clock_mode=clock_mode, resolution=resolution, framerate=framerate, isp_blocks=isp_blocks, colorspace=colorspace) return old_config, new_config def _init_led(self, options): """ Determine the GPIO pin to use for controlling the camera's LED, if any. """ led_pin = options['led_pin'] if GPIO and led_pin is None: try: led_pin = { (0, 0): 2, # compute module (default for cam 0) (0, 1): 30, # compute module (default for cam 1) (1, 0): 5, # Pi 1 model B rev 1 (2, 0): 5, # Pi 1 model B rev 2 or model A (3, 0): 32, # Pi 1 model B+ or Pi 2 model B }[(GPIO.RPI_REVISION, options['camera_num'])] except KeyError: raise PiCameraError( 'Unable to determine default GPIO LED pin for RPi ' 'revision %d and camera num %d' % ( GPIO.RPI_REVISION, options['camera_num'])) self._used_led = False self._led_pin = led_pin def _init_camera(self, options): """ Construct the MMAL camera component and perform all early configuration on it (e.g. most stereoscopic configuration has to be done before the camera is activated). """ try: stereo_mode = self.STEREO_MODES[options['stereo_mode']] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError( 'Invalid stereo mode: %s' % options['stereo_mode']) try: self._camera = mo.MMALCamera() except PiCameraMMALError as e: if e.status == mmal.MMAL_ENOMEM: raise PiCameraError( "Camera is not enabled. Try running 'sudo raspi-config' " "and ensure that the camera has been enabled.") else: raise self._camera_config = self._camera.control.params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_CONFIG] # Don't attempt to set this if stereo mode isn't requested as it'll # break compatibility on older firmwares if stereo_mode != mmal.MMAL_STEREOSCOPIC_MODE_NONE: for p in self._camera.outputs: mp = mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_STEREOSCOPIC_MODE_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_HEADER_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_STEREOSCOPIC_MODE, ct.sizeof(mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_STEREOSCOPIC_MODE_T), ), mode=stereo_mode, decimate=options['stereo_decimate'], swap_eyes=False, ) p.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_STEREOSCOPIC_MODE] = mp # Must be done *after* stereo-scopic setting self._camera.control.params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_NUM] = options['camera_num'] def _init_defaults(self): """ Sets most camera settings to various default values. """ self._exif_tags = { 'IFD0.Model': 'RP_%s' % self.revision, 'IFD0.Make': 'RaspberryPi', } self.sharpness = 0 self.contrast = 0 self.brightness = 50 self.saturation = 0 self.iso = 0 # auto self.video_stabilization = False self.exposure_compensation = 0 self.exposure_mode = 'auto' self.meter_mode = 'average' self.awb_mode = 'auto' self.image_effect = 'none' self.color_effects = None self.rotation = 0 self.hflip = self.vflip = False self.zoom = (0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0) def _init_splitter(self): """ Create a splitter component for the video port. This is to permit video recordings and captures where use_video_port=True to occur simultaneously (#26) """ self._splitter = mo.MMALSplitter() self._splitter.inputs[0].connect( self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT]).enable() def _init_preview(self): """ Create a null-sink component, enable it and connect it to the camera's preview port. If nothing is connected to the preview port, the camera doesn't measure exposure and captured images gradually fade to black (issue #22; subsequently fixed in firmware but there's no harm in leaving this in place for the sake of backwards compat). """ self._preview = PiNullSink( self, self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT]) def _start_capture(self, port): """ Starts the camera capturing frames. This method starts the camera feeding frames to any attached encoders, but only enables capture if the port is the camera's still port, or if there's a single active encoder on the video splitter. """ if ( port == self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_CAPTURE_PORT] or len([e for e in self._encoders.values() if e.active]) == 1): port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAPTURE] = True def _stop_capture(self, port): """ Stops the camera capturing frames. This method stops the camera feeding frames to any attached encoders, but only disables capture if the port is the camera's still port, or if there's a single active encoder on the video splitter. """ if ( port == self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_CAPTURE_PORT] or len([e for e in self._encoders.values() if e.active]) == 1): port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAPTURE] = False def _check_camera_open(self): """ Raise an exception if the camera is already closed, or if the camera has encountered a fatal error. """ exc, self._camera_exception = self._camera_exception, None if exc: raise exc if self.closed: raise PiCameraClosed("Camera is closed") def _check_recording_stopped(self): """ Raise an exception if the camera is currently recording. """ if self.recording: raise PiCameraRuntimeError("Recording is currently running") def _get_ports(self, from_video_port, splitter_port): """ Determine the camera and output ports for given capture options. See :ref:`camera_hardware` for more information on picamera's usage of camera, splitter, and encoder ports. The general idea here is that the capture (still) port operates on its own, while the video port is always connected to a splitter component, so requests for a video port also have to specify which splitter port they want to use. """ self._check_camera_open() if from_video_port and (splitter_port in self._encoders): raise PiCameraAlreadyRecording( 'The camera is already using port %d ' % splitter_port) camera_port = ( self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT] if from_video_port else self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_CAPTURE_PORT] ) output_port = ( self._splitter.outputs[splitter_port] if from_video_port else camera_port ) return (camera_port, output_port) def _get_output_format(self, output): """ Given an output object, attempt to determine the requested format. We attempt to determine the filename of the *output* object and derive a MIME type from the extension. If *output* has no filename, an error is raised. """ if isinstance(output, bytes): filename = output.decode('utf-8') elif isinstance(output, str): filename = output else: try: filename = output.name except AttributeError: raise PiCameraValueError( 'Format must be specified when output has no filename') type, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(filename, strict=False) if not type: raise PiCameraValueError( 'Unable to determine type from filename %s' % filename) return type def _get_image_format(self, output, format=None): """ Given an output object and an optional format, attempt to determine the requested image format. This method is used by all capture methods to determine the requested output format. If *format* is specified as a MIME-type the "image/" prefix is stripped. If *format* is not specified, then :meth:`_get_output_format` will be called to attempt to determine format from the *output* object. """ if isinstance(format, bytes): format = format.decode('utf-8') format = format or self._get_output_format(output) format = ( format[6:] if format.startswith('image/') else format) if format == 'x-ms-bmp': format = 'bmp' if format == 'raw': format = self.raw_format return format def _get_video_format(self, output, format=None): """ Given an output object and an optional format, attempt to determine the requested video format. This method is used by all recording methods to determine the requested output format. If *format* is specified as a MIME-type the "video/" or "application/" prefix will be stripped. If *format* is not specified, then :meth:`_get_output_format` will be called to attempt to determine format from the *output* object. """ if isinstance(format, bytes): format = format.decode('utf-8') format = format or self._get_output_format(output) format = ( format[6:] if format.startswith('video/') else format[12:] if format.startswith('application/') else format) return format def _get_image_encoder( self, camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options): """ Construct an image encoder for the requested parameters. This method is called by :meth:`capture` and :meth:`capture_continuous` to construct an image encoder. The *camera_port* parameter gives the MMAL camera port that should be enabled for capture by the encoder. The *output_port* parameter gives the MMAL port that the encoder should read output from (this may be the same as the camera port, but may be different if other component(s) like a splitter have been placed in the pipeline). The *format* parameter indicates the image format and will be one of: * ``'jpeg'`` * ``'png'`` * ``'gif'`` * ``'bmp'`` * ``'yuv'`` * ``'rgb'`` * ``'rgba'`` * ``'bgr'`` * ``'bgra'`` The *resize* parameter indicates the size that the encoder should resize the output to (presumably by including a resizer in the pipeline). Finally, *options* includes extra keyword arguments that should be passed verbatim to the encoder. """ encoder_class = ( PiRawOneImageEncoder if format in self.RAW_FORMATS else PiCookedOneImageEncoder) return encoder_class( self, camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options) def _get_images_encoder( self, camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options): """ Construct a multi-image encoder for the requested parameters. This method is largely equivalent to :meth:`_get_image_encoder` with the exception that the encoder returned should expect to be passed an iterable of outputs to its :meth:`~PiEncoder.start` method, rather than a single output object. This method is called by the :meth:`capture_sequence` method. All parameters are the same as in :meth:`_get_image_encoder`. Please refer to the documentation for that method for further information. """ encoder_class = ( PiRawMultiImageEncoder if format in self.RAW_FORMATS else PiCookedMultiImageEncoder) return encoder_class( self, camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options) def _get_video_encoder( self, camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options): """ Construct a video encoder for the requested parameters. This method is called by :meth:`start_recording` and :meth:`record_sequence` to construct a video encoder. The *camera_port* parameter gives the MMAL camera port that should be enabled for capture by the encoder. The *output_port* parameter gives the MMAL port that the encoder should read output from (this may be the same as the camera port, but may be different if other component(s) like a splitter have been placed in the pipeline). The *format* parameter indicates the video format and will be one of: * ``'h264'`` * ``'mjpeg'`` The *resize* parameter indicates the size that the encoder should resize the output to (presumably by including a resizer in the pipeline). Finally, *options* includes extra keyword arguments that should be passed verbatim to the encoder. """ encoder_class = ( PiRawVideoEncoder if format in self.RAW_FORMATS else PiCookedVideoEncoder) return encoder_class( self, camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options)
[docs] def close(self): """ Finalizes the state of the camera. After successfully constructing a :class:`PiCamera` object, you should ensure you call the :meth:`close` method once you are finished with the camera (e.g. in the ``finally`` section of a ``try..finally`` block). This method stops all recording and preview activities and releases all resources associated with the camera; this is necessary to prevent GPU memory leaks. """ for port in list(self._encoders): self.stop_recording(splitter_port=port) assert not self.recording for overlay in list(self._overlays): self.remove_overlay(overlay) if self._preview: self._preview.close() self._preview = None if self._splitter: self._splitter.close() self._splitter = None if self._camera: self._camera.close() self._camera = None exc, self._camera_exception = self._camera_exception, None if exc: raise exc
def __enter__(self): return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, exc_tb): self.close()
[docs] def start_preview(self, **options): """ Displays the preview overlay. This method starts a camera preview as an overlay on the Pi's primary display (HDMI or composite). A :class:`PiRenderer` instance (more specifically, a :class:`PiPreviewRenderer`) is constructed with the keyword arguments captured in *options*, and is returned from the method (this instance is also accessible from the :attr:`preview` attribute for as long as the renderer remains active). By default, the renderer will be opaque and fullscreen. This means the default preview overrides whatever is currently visible on the display. More specifically, the preview does not rely on a graphical environment like X-Windows (it can run quite happily from a TTY console); it is simply an overlay on the Pi's video output. To stop the preview and reveal the display again, call :meth:`stop_preview`. The preview can be started and stopped multiple times during the lifetime of the :class:`PiCamera` object. All other camera properties can be modified "live" while the preview is running (e.g. :attr:`brightness`). .. note:: Because the default preview typically obscures the screen, ensure you have a means of stopping a preview before starting one. If the preview obscures your interactive console you won't be able to Alt+Tab back to it as the preview isn't in a window. If you are in an interactive Python session, simply pressing Ctrl+D usually suffices to terminate the environment, including the camera and its associated preview. """ self._check_camera_open() self._preview.close() options.setdefault('layer', self._preview_layer) options.setdefault('alpha', self._preview_alpha) options.setdefault('fullscreen', self._preview_fullscreen) options.setdefault('window', self._preview_window) renderer = PiPreviewRenderer( self, self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT], **options) self._preview = renderer return renderer
[docs] def stop_preview(self): """ Hides the preview overlay. If :meth:`start_preview` has previously been called, this method shuts down the preview display which generally results in the underlying display becoming visible again. If a preview is not currently running, no exception is raised - the method will simply do nothing. """ self._check_camera_open() self._preview.close() self._preview = PiNullSink( self, self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT])
[docs] def add_overlay(self, source, size=None, format=None, **options): """ Adds a static overlay to the preview output. This method creates a new static overlay using the same rendering mechanism as the preview. Overlays will appear on the Pi's video output, but will not appear in captures or video recordings. Multiple overlays can exist; each call to :meth:`add_overlay` returns a new :class:`PiOverlayRenderer` instance representing the overlay. The *source* must be an object that supports the :ref:`buffer protocol <bufferobjects>` in one of the supported unencoded formats: ``'yuv'``, ``'rgb'``, ``'rgba'``, ``'bgr'``, or ``'bgra'``. The format can specified explicitly with the optional *format* parameter. If not specified, the method will attempt to guess the format based on the length of *source* and the *size* (assuming 3 bytes per pixel for RGB, and 4 bytes for RGBA). The optional *size* parameter specifies the size of the source image as a ``(width, height)`` tuple. If this is omitted or ``None`` then the size is assumed to be the same as the camera's current :attr:`resolution`. The length of *source* must take into account that widths are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 32, and heights to the nearest multiple of 16. For example, if *size* is ``(1280, 720)``, and *format* is ``'rgb'``, then *source* must be a buffer with length 1280 × 720 × 3 bytes, or 2,764,800 bytes (because 1280 is a multiple of 32, and 720 is a multiple of 16 no extra rounding is required). However, if *size* is ``(97, 57)``, and *format* is ``'rgb'`` then *source* must be a buffer with length 128 × 64 × 3 bytes, or 24,576 bytes (pixels beyond column 97 and row 57 in the source will be ignored). New overlays default to *layer* 0, whilst the preview defaults to layer 2. Higher numbered layers obscure lower numbered layers, hence new overlays will be invisible (if the preview is running) by default. You can make the new overlay visible either by making any existing preview transparent (with the :attr:`~PiRenderer.alpha` property) or by moving the overlay into a layer higher than the preview (with the :attr:`~PiRenderer.layer` property). All keyword arguments captured in *options* are passed onto the :class:`PiRenderer` constructor. All camera properties except :attr:`resolution` and :attr:`framerate` can be modified while overlays exist. The reason for these exceptions is that the overlay has a static resolution and changing the camera's mode would require resizing of the source. .. warning:: If too many overlays are added, the display output will be disabled and a reboot will generally be required to restore the display. Overlays are composited "on the fly". Hence, a real-time constraint exists wherein for each horizontal line of HDMI output, the content of all source layers must be fetched, resized, converted, and blended to produce the output pixels. If enough overlays exist (where "enough" is a number dependent on overlay size, display resolution, bus frequency, and several other factors making it unrealistic to calculate in advance), this process breaks down and video output fails. One solution is to add ``dispmanx_offline=1`` to ``/boot/config.txt`` to force the use of an off-screen buffer. Be aware that this requires more GPU memory and may reduce the update rate. .. _RGB: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGB .. _RGBA: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGBA_color_space .. versionadded:: 1.8 .. versionchanged:: 1.13 Added *format* parameter """ self._check_camera_open() renderer = PiOverlayRenderer(self, source, size, format, **options) self._overlays.append(renderer) return renderer
[docs] def remove_overlay(self, overlay): """ Removes a static overlay from the preview output. This method removes an overlay which was previously created by :meth:`add_overlay`. The *overlay* parameter specifies the :class:`PiRenderer` instance that was returned by :meth:`add_overlay`. .. versionadded:: 1.8 """ if not overlay in self._overlays: raise PiCameraValueError( "The specified overlay is not owned by this instance of " "PiCamera") overlay.close() self._overlays.remove(overlay)
[docs] def start_recording( self, output, format=None, resize=None, splitter_port=1, **options): """ Start recording video from the camera, storing it in *output*. If *output* is a string, it will be treated as a filename for a new file which the video will be written to. If *output* is not a string, but is an object with a ``write`` method, it is assumed to be a file-like object and the video data is appended to it (the implementation only assumes the object has a ``write()`` method - no other methods are required but ``flush`` will be called at the end of recording if it is present). If *output* is not a string, and has no ``write`` method it is assumed to be a writeable object implementing the buffer protocol. In this case, the video frames will be written sequentially to the underlying buffer (which must be large enough to accept all frame data). If *format* is ``None`` (the default), the method will attempt to guess the required video format from the extension of *output* (if it's a string), or from the *name* attribute of *output* (if it has one). In the case that the format cannot be determined, a :exc:`PiCameraValueError` will be raised. If *format* is not ``None``, it must be a string specifying the format that you want the video output in. The format can be a MIME-type or one of the following strings: * ``'h264'`` - Write an H.264 video stream * ``'mjpeg'`` - Write an M-JPEG video stream * ``'yuv'`` - Write the raw video data to a file in YUV420 format * ``'rgb'`` - Write the raw video data to a file in 24-bit RGB format * ``'rgba'`` - Write the raw video data to a file in 32-bit RGBA format * ``'bgr'`` - Write the raw video data to a file in 24-bit BGR format * ``'bgra'`` - Write the raw video data to a file in 32-bit BGRA format If *resize* is not ``None`` (the default), it must be a two-element tuple specifying the width and height that the video recording should be resized to. This is particularly useful for recording video using the full resolution of the camera sensor (which is not possible in H.264 without down-sizing the output). The *splitter_port* parameter specifies the port of the built-in splitter that the video encoder will be attached to. This defaults to ``1`` and most users will have no need to specify anything different. If you wish to record multiple (presumably resized) streams simultaneously, specify a value between ``0`` and ``3`` inclusive for this parameter, ensuring that you do not specify a port that is currently in use. Certain formats accept additional options which can be specified as keyword arguments. The ``'h264'`` format accepts the following additional options: * *profile* - The H.264 profile to use for encoding. Defaults to 'high', but can be one of 'baseline', 'main', 'high', or 'constrained'. * *level* - The `H.264 level`_ to use for encoding. Defaults to '4', but can be any H.264 level up to '4.2'. * *intra_period* - The key frame rate (the rate at which I-frames are inserted in the output). Defaults to ``None``, but can be any 32-bit integer value representing the number of frames between successive I-frames. The special value 0 causes the encoder to produce a single initial I-frame, and then only P-frames subsequently. Note that :meth:`split_recording` will fail in this mode. * *intra_refresh* - The key frame format (the way in which I-frames will be inserted into the output stream). Defaults to ``None``, but can be one of 'cyclic', 'adaptive', 'both', or 'cyclicrows'. * *inline_headers* - When ``True``, specifies that the encoder should output SPS/PPS headers within the stream to ensure GOPs (groups of pictures) are self describing. This is important for streaming applications where the client may wish to seek within the stream, and enables the use of :meth:`split_recording`. Defaults to ``True`` if not specified. * *sei* - When ``True``, specifies the encoder should include "Supplemental Enhancement Information" within the output stream. Defaults to ``False`` if not specified. * *sps_timing* - When ``True`` the encoder includes the camera's framerate in the SPS header. Defaults to ``False`` if not specified. * *motion_output* - Indicates the output destination for motion vector estimation data. When ``None`` (the default), motion data is not output. Otherwise, this can be a filename string, a file-like object, or a writeable buffer object (as with the *output* parameter). All encoded formats accept the following additional options: * *bitrate* - The bitrate at which video will be encoded. Defaults to 17000000 (17Mbps) if not specified. The maximum value depends on the selected `H.264 level`_ and profile. Bitrate 0 indicates the encoder should not use bitrate control (the encoder is limited by the quality only). * *quality* - Specifies the quality that the encoder should attempt to maintain. For the ``'h264'`` format, use values between 10 and 40 where 10 is extremely high quality, and 40 is extremely low (20-25 is usually a reasonable range for H.264 encoding). For the ``mjpeg`` format, the quality is ignored (it can be specified without error though); *bitrate* alone controls the quality of the output. * *quantization* - Deprecated alias for *quality*. .. versionchanged:: 1.0 The *resize* parameter was added, and ``'mjpeg'`` was added as a recording format .. versionchanged:: 1.3 The *splitter_port* parameter was added .. versionchanged:: 1.5 The *quantization* parameter was deprecated in favor of *quality*, and the *motion_output* parameter was added. .. versionchanged:: 1.11 Support for buffer outputs was added. .. _H.264 level: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.264/MPEG-4_AVC#Levels """ if 'quantization' in options: warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'The quantization option is deprecated; please use ' 'quality instead (same value)')) with self._encoders_lock: camera_port, output_port = self._get_ports(True, splitter_port) format = self._get_video_format(output, format) encoder = self._get_video_encoder( camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options) self._encoders[splitter_port] = encoder try: encoder.start(output, options.get('motion_output')) except Exception as e: encoder.close() with self._encoders_lock: del self._encoders[splitter_port] raise
[docs] def split_recording(self, output, splitter_port=1, **options): """ Continue the recording in the specified output; close existing output. When called, the video encoder will wait for the next appropriate split point (an inline SPS header), then will cease writing to the current output (and close it, if it was specified as a filename), and continue writing to the newly specified *output*. The *output* parameter is treated as in the :meth:`start_recording` method (it can be a string, a file-like object, or a writeable buffer object). The *motion_output* parameter can be used to redirect the output of the motion vector data in the same fashion as *output*. If *motion_output* is ``None`` (the default) then motion vector data will not be redirected and will continue being written to the output specified by the *motion_output* parameter given to :meth:`start_recording`. Alternatively, if you only wish to redirect motion vector data, you can set *output* to ``None`` and given a new value for *motion_output*. The *splitter_port* parameter specifies which port of the video splitter the encoder you wish to change outputs is attached to. This defaults to ``1`` and most users will have no need to specify anything different. Valid values are between ``0`` and ``3`` inclusive. Note that unlike :meth:`start_recording`, you cannot specify format or other options as these cannot be changed in the middle of recording. Only the new *output* (and *motion_output*) can be specified. Furthermore, the format of the recording is currently limited to H264, and *inline_headers* must be ``True`` when :meth:`start_recording` is called (this is the default). The method returns the meta-data of the first :class:`PiVideoFrame` that is written to the new output. .. versionchanged:: 1.3 The *splitter_port* parameter was added .. versionchanged:: 1.5 The *motion_output* parameter was added .. versionchanged:: 1.11 Support for buffer outputs was added. """ try: with self._encoders_lock: encoder = self._encoders[splitter_port] except KeyError: raise PiCameraNotRecording( 'There is no recording in progress on ' 'port %d' % splitter_port) else: return encoder.split(output, options.get('motion_output'))
[docs] def request_key_frame(self, splitter_port=1): """ Request the encoder generate a key-frame as soon as possible. When called, the video encoder running on the specified *splitter_port* will attempt to produce a key-frame (full-image frame) as soon as possible. The *splitter_port* defaults to ``1``. Valid values are between ``0`` and ``3`` inclusive. .. note:: This method is only meaningful for recordings encoded in the H264 format as MJPEG produces full frames for every frame recorded. Furthermore, there's no guarantee that the *next* frame will be a key-frame; this is simply a request to produce one as soon as possible after the call. .. versionadded:: 1.11 """ try: with self._encoders_lock: encoder = self._encoders[splitter_port] except KeyError: raise PiCameraNotRecording( 'There is no recording in progress on ' 'port %d' % splitter_port) else: encoder.request_key_frame()
[docs] def wait_recording(self, timeout=0, splitter_port=1): """ Wait on the video encoder for timeout seconds. It is recommended that this method is called while recording to check for exceptions. If an error occurs during recording (for example out of disk space) the recording will stop, but an exception will only be raised when the :meth:`wait_recording` or :meth:`stop_recording` methods are called. If ``timeout`` is 0 (the default) the function will immediately return (or raise an exception if an error has occurred). The *splitter_port* parameter specifies which port of the video splitter the encoder you wish to wait on is attached to. This defaults to ``1`` and most users will have no need to specify anything different. Valid values are between ``0`` and ``3`` inclusive. .. versionchanged:: 1.3 The *splitter_port* parameter was added """ assert timeout is not None try: with self._encoders_lock: encoder = self._encoders[splitter_port] except KeyError: raise PiCameraNotRecording( 'There is no recording in progress on ' 'port %d' % splitter_port) else: encoder.wait(timeout)
[docs] def stop_recording(self, splitter_port=1): """ Stop recording video from the camera. After calling this method the video encoder will be shut down and output will stop being written to the file-like object specified with :meth:`start_recording`. If an error occurred during recording and :meth:`wait_recording` has not been called since the error then this method will raise the exception. The *splitter_port* parameter specifies which port of the video splitter the encoder you wish to stop is attached to. This defaults to ``1`` and most users will have no need to specify anything different. Valid values are between ``0`` and ``3`` inclusive. .. versionchanged:: 1.3 The *splitter_port* parameter was added """ try: with self._encoders_lock: encoder = self._encoders[splitter_port] except KeyError: raise PiCameraNotRecording( 'There is no recording in progress on ' 'port %d' % splitter_port) else: try: self.wait_recording(0, splitter_port) finally: encoder.close() with self._encoders_lock: del self._encoders[splitter_port]
[docs] def record_sequence( self, outputs, format='h264', resize=None, splitter_port=1, **options): """ Record a sequence of video clips from the camera. This method accepts a sequence or iterator of *outputs* each of which must either be a string specifying a filename for output, or a file-like object with a ``write`` method. The method acts as an iterator itself, yielding each item of the sequence in turn. In this way, the caller can control how long to record to each item by only permitting the loop to continue when ready to switch to the next output. The *format*, *splitter_port*, *resize*, and *options* parameters are the same as in :meth:`start_recording`, but *format* defaults to ``'h264'``. The format is **not** derived from the filenames in *outputs* by this method. For example, to record 3 consecutive 10-second video clips, writing the output to a series of H.264 files named clip01.h264, clip02.h264, and clip03.h264 one could use the following:: import picamera with picamera.PiCamera() as camera: for filename in camera.record_sequence([ 'clip01.h264', 'clip02.h264', 'clip03.h264']): print('Recording to %s' % filename) camera.wait_recording(10) Alternatively, a more flexible method of writing the previous example (which is easier to expand to a large number of output files) is by using a generator expression as the input sequence:: import picamera with picamera.PiCamera() as camera: for filename in camera.record_sequence( 'clip%02d.h264' % i for i in range(3)): print('Recording to %s' % filename) camera.wait_recording(10) More advanced techniques are also possible by utilising infinite sequences, such as those generated by :func:`itertools.cycle`. In the following example, recording is switched between two in-memory streams. Whilst one stream is recording, the other is being analysed. The script only stops recording when a video recording meets some criteria defined by the ``process`` function:: import io import itertools import picamera with picamera.PiCamera() as camera: analyse = None for stream in camera.record_sequence( itertools.cycle((io.BytesIO(), io.BytesIO()))): if analyse is not None: if process(analyse): break analyse.seek(0) analyse.truncate() camera.wait_recording(5) analyse = stream .. versionadded:: 1.3 """ with self._encoders_lock: camera_port, output_port = self._get_ports(True, splitter_port) format = self._get_video_format('', format) encoder = self._get_video_encoder( camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options) self._encoders[splitter_port] = encoder try: start = True for output in outputs: if start: start = False encoder.start(output, options.get('motion_output')) else: encoder.split(output) yield output finally: try: encoder.wait(0) finally: encoder.close() with self._encoders_lock: del self._encoders[splitter_port]
[docs] def capture( self, output, format=None, use_video_port=False, resize=None, splitter_port=0, bayer=False, **options): """ Capture an image from the camera, storing it in *output*. If *output* is a string, it will be treated as a filename for a new file which the image will be written to. If *output* is not a string, but is an object with a ``write`` method, it is assumed to be a file-like object and the image data is appended to it (the implementation only assumes the object has a ``write`` method - no other methods are required but ``flush`` will be called at the end of capture if it is present). If *output* is not a string, and has no ``write`` method it is assumed to be a writeable object implementing the buffer protocol. In this case, the image data will be written directly to the underlying buffer (which must be large enough to accept the image data). If *format* is ``None`` (the default), the method will attempt to guess the required image format from the extension of *output* (if it's a string), or from the *name* attribute of *output* (if it has one). In the case that the format cannot be determined, a :exc:`PiCameraValueError` will be raised. If *format* is not ``None``, it must be a string specifying the format that you want the image output in. The format can be a MIME-type or one of the following strings: * ``'jpeg'`` - Write a JPEG file * ``'png'`` - Write a PNG file * ``'gif'`` - Write a GIF file * ``'bmp'`` - Write a Windows bitmap file * ``'yuv'`` - Write the raw image data to a file in YUV420 format * ``'rgb'`` - Write the raw image data to a file in 24-bit RGB format * ``'rgba'`` - Write the raw image data to a file in 32-bit RGBA format * ``'bgr'`` - Write the raw image data to a file in 24-bit BGR format * ``'bgra'`` - Write the raw image data to a file in 32-bit BGRA format * ``'raw'`` - Deprecated option for raw captures; the format is taken from the deprecated :attr:`raw_format` attribute The *use_video_port* parameter controls whether the camera's image or video port is used to capture images. It defaults to ``False`` which means that the camera's image port is used. This port is slow but produces better quality pictures. If you need rapid capture up to the rate of video frames, set this to ``True``. When *use_video_port* is ``True``, the *splitter_port* parameter specifies the port of the video splitter that the image encoder will be attached to. This defaults to ``0`` and most users will have no need to specify anything different. This parameter is ignored when *use_video_port* is ``False``. See :ref:`mmal` for more information about the video splitter. If *resize* is not ``None`` (the default), it must be a two-element tuple specifying the width and height that the image should be resized to. .. warning:: If *resize* is specified, or *use_video_port* is ``True``, Exif metadata will **not** be included in JPEG output. This is due to an underlying firmware limitation. Certain file formats accept additional options which can be specified as keyword arguments. Currently, only the ``'jpeg'`` encoder accepts additional options, which are: * *quality* - Defines the quality of the JPEG encoder as an integer ranging from 1 to 100. Defaults to 85. Please note that JPEG quality is not a percentage and `definitions of quality`_ vary widely. * *restart* - Defines the restart interval for the JPEG encoder as a number of JPEG MCUs. The actual restart interval used will be a multiple of the number of MCUs per row in the resulting image. * *thumbnail* - Defines the size and quality of the thumbnail to embed in the Exif metadata. Specifying ``None`` disables thumbnail generation. Otherwise, specify a tuple of ``(width, height, quality)``. Defaults to ``(64, 48, 35)``. * *bayer* - If ``True``, the raw bayer data from the camera's sensor is included in the Exif metadata. .. note:: The so-called "raw" formats listed above (``'yuv'``, ``'rgb'``, etc.) do not represent the raw bayer data from the camera's sensor. Rather they provide access to the image data after GPU processing, but before format encoding (JPEG, PNG, etc). Currently, the only method of accessing the raw bayer data is via the *bayer* parameter described above. .. versionchanged:: 1.0 The *resize* parameter was added, and raw capture formats can now be specified directly .. versionchanged:: 1.3 The *splitter_port* parameter was added, and *bayer* was added as an option for the ``'jpeg'`` format .. versionchanged:: 1.11 Support for buffer outputs was added. .. _definitions of quality: http://photo.net/learn/jpeg/#qual """ if format == 'raw': warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'The "raw" format option is deprecated; specify the ' 'required format directly instead ("yuv", "rgb", etc.)')) if use_video_port and bayer: raise PiCameraValueError( 'bayer is only valid with still port captures') if 'burst' in options: raise PiCameraValueError( 'burst is only valid with capture_sequence or capture_continuous') with self._encoders_lock: camera_port, output_port = self._get_ports(use_video_port, splitter_port) format = self._get_image_format(output, format) encoder = self._get_image_encoder( camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options) if use_video_port: self._encoders[splitter_port] = encoder try: if bayer: camera_port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ENABLE_RAW_CAPTURE] = True encoder.start(output) # Wait for the callback to set the event indicating the end of # image capture if not encoder.wait(self.CAPTURE_TIMEOUT): raise PiCameraRuntimeError( 'Timed out waiting for capture to end') finally: encoder.close() with self._encoders_lock: if use_video_port: del self._encoders[splitter_port]
[docs] def capture_sequence( self, outputs, format='jpeg', use_video_port=False, resize=None, splitter_port=0, burst=False, bayer=False, **options): """ Capture a sequence of consecutive images from the camera. This method accepts a sequence or iterator of *outputs* each of which must either be a string specifying a filename for output, or a file-like object with a ``write`` method, or a writeable buffer object. For each item in the sequence or iterator of outputs, the camera captures a single image as fast as it can. The *format*, *use_video_port*, *splitter_port*, *resize*, and *options* parameters are the same as in :meth:`capture`, but *format* defaults to ``'jpeg'``. The format is **not** derived from the filenames in *outputs* by this method. If *use_video_port* is ``False`` (the default), the *burst* parameter can be used to make still port captures faster. Specifically, this prevents the preview from switching resolutions between captures which significantly speeds up consecutive captures from the still port. The downside is that this mode is currently has several bugs; the major issue is that if captures are performed too quickly some frames will come back severely underexposed. It is recommended that users avoid the *burst* parameter unless they absolutely require it and are prepared to work around such issues. For example, to capture 3 consecutive images:: import time import picamera with picamera.PiCamera() as camera: camera.start_preview() time.sleep(2) camera.capture_sequence([ 'image1.jpg', 'image2.jpg', 'image3.jpg', ]) camera.stop_preview() If you wish to capture a large number of images, a list comprehension or generator expression can be used to construct the list of filenames to use:: import time import picamera with picamera.PiCamera() as camera: camera.start_preview() time.sleep(2) camera.capture_sequence([ 'image%02d.jpg' % i for i in range(100) ]) camera.stop_preview() More complex effects can be obtained by using a generator function to provide the filenames or output objects. .. versionchanged:: 1.0 The *resize* parameter was added, and raw capture formats can now be specified directly .. versionchanged:: 1.3 The *splitter_port* parameter was added .. versionchanged:: 1.11 Support for buffer outputs was added. """ if use_video_port: if burst: raise PiCameraValueError( 'burst is only valid with still port captures') if bayer: raise PiCameraValueError( 'bayer is only valid with still port captures') with self._encoders_lock: camera_port, output_port = self._get_ports(use_video_port, splitter_port) format = self._get_image_format('', format) if use_video_port: encoder = self._get_images_encoder( camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options) self._encoders[splitter_port] = encoder else: encoder = self._get_image_encoder( camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options) try: if use_video_port: encoder.start(outputs) encoder.wait() else: if burst: camera_port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_BURST_CAPTURE] = True try: for output in outputs: if bayer: camera_port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ENABLE_RAW_CAPTURE] = True encoder.start(output) if not encoder.wait(self.CAPTURE_TIMEOUT): raise PiCameraRuntimeError( 'Timed out waiting for capture to end') finally: if burst: camera_port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_BURST_CAPTURE] = False finally: encoder.close() with self._encoders_lock: if use_video_port: del self._encoders[splitter_port]
[docs] def capture_continuous( self, output, format=None, use_video_port=False, resize=None, splitter_port=0, burst=False, bayer=False, **options): """ Capture images continuously from the camera as an infinite iterator. This method returns an infinite iterator of images captured continuously from the camera. If *output* is a string, each captured image is stored in a file named after *output* after substitution of two values with the :meth:`~str.format` method. Those two values are: * ``{counter}`` - a simple incrementor that starts at 1 and increases by 1 for each image taken * ``{timestamp}`` - a :class:`~datetime.datetime` instance The table below contains several example values of *output* and the sequence of filenames those values could produce: .. tabularcolumns:: |p{80mm}|p{40mm}|p{10mm}| +--------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------+ | *output* Value | Filenames | Notes | +============================================+============================================+=======+ | ``'image{counter}.jpg'`` | image1.jpg, image2.jpg, image3.jpg, ... | | +--------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------+ | ``'image{counter:02d}.jpg'`` | image01.jpg, image02.jpg, image03.jpg, ... | | +--------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------+ | ``'image{timestamp}.jpg'`` | image2013-10-05 12:07:12.346743.jpg, | (1) | | | image2013-10-05 12:07:32.498539, ... | | +--------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------+ | ``'image{timestamp:%H-%M-%S-%f}.jpg'`` | image12-10-02-561527.jpg, | | | | image12-10-14-905398.jpg | | +--------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------+ | ``'{timestamp:%H%M%S}-{counter:03d}.jpg'`` | 121002-001.jpg, 121013-002.jpg, | (2) | | | 121014-003.jpg, ... | | +--------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------+-------+ 1. Note that because timestamp's default output includes colons (:), the resulting filenames are not suitable for use on Windows. For this reason (and the fact the default contains spaces) it is strongly recommended you always specify a format when using ``{timestamp}``. 2. You can use both ``{timestamp}`` and ``{counter}`` in a single format string (multiple times too!) although this tends to be redundant. If *output* is not a string, but has a ``write`` method, it is assumed to be a file-like object and each image is simply written to this object sequentially. In this case you will likely either want to write something to the object between the images to distinguish them, or clear the object between iterations. If *output* is not a string, and has no ``write`` method, it is assumed to be a writeable object supporting the buffer protocol; each image is simply written to the buffer sequentially. The *format*, *use_video_port*, *splitter_port*, *resize*, and *options* parameters are the same as in :meth:`capture`. If *use_video_port* is ``False`` (the default), the *burst* parameter can be used to make still port captures faster. Specifically, this prevents the preview from switching resolutions between captures which significantly speeds up consecutive captures from the still port. The downside is that this mode is currently has several bugs; the major issue is that if captures are performed too quickly some frames will come back severely underexposed. It is recommended that users avoid the *burst* parameter unless they absolutely require it and are prepared to work around such issues. For example, to capture 60 images with a one second delay between them, writing the output to a series of JPEG files named image01.jpg, image02.jpg, etc. one could do the following:: import time import picamera with picamera.PiCamera() as camera: camera.start_preview() try: for i, filename in enumerate( camera.capture_continuous('image{counter:02d}.jpg')): print(filename) time.sleep(1) if i == 59: break finally: camera.stop_preview() Alternatively, to capture JPEG frames as fast as possible into an in-memory stream, performing some processing on each stream until some condition is satisfied:: import io import time import picamera with picamera.PiCamera() as camera: stream = io.BytesIO() for foo in camera.capture_continuous(stream, format='jpeg'): # Truncate the stream to the current position (in case # prior iterations output a longer image) stream.truncate() stream.seek(0) if process(stream): break .. versionchanged:: 1.0 The *resize* parameter was added, and raw capture formats can now be specified directly .. versionchanged:: 1.3 The *splitter_port* parameter was added .. versionchanged:: 1.11 Support for buffer outputs was added. """ if use_video_port: if burst: raise PiCameraValueError( 'burst is only valid with still port captures') if bayer: raise PiCameraValueError( 'bayer is only valid with still port captures') with self._encoders_lock: camera_port, output_port = self._get_ports(use_video_port, splitter_port) format = self._get_image_format(output, format) encoder = self._get_image_encoder( camera_port, output_port, format, resize, **options) if use_video_port: self._encoders[splitter_port] = encoder try: if burst: camera_port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_BURST_CAPTURE] = True try: if isinstance(output, bytes): # If we're fed a bytes string, assume it's UTF-8 encoded # and convert it to Unicode. Technically this is wrong # (file-systems use all sorts of encodings), but UTF-8 is a # reasonable default and this keeps compatibility with # Python 2 simple although it breaks the edge cases of # non-UTF-8 encoded bytes strings with non-UTF-8 encoded # file-systems output = output.decode('utf-8') if isinstance(output, str): counter = 1 while True: filename = output.format( counter=counter, timestamp=datetime.datetime.now(), ) if bayer: camera_port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ENABLE_RAW_CAPTURE] = True encoder.start(filename) if not encoder.wait(self.CAPTURE_TIMEOUT): raise PiCameraRuntimeError( 'Timed out waiting for capture to end') yield filename counter += 1 else: while True: if bayer: camera_port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ENABLE_RAW_CAPTURE] = True encoder.start(output) if not encoder.wait(self.CAPTURE_TIMEOUT): raise PiCameraRuntimeError( 'Timed out waiting for capture to end') yield output finally: if burst: camera_port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_BURST_CAPTURE] = False finally: encoder.close() with self._encoders_lock: if use_video_port: del self._encoders[splitter_port]
@property def closed(self): """ Returns ``True`` if the :meth:`close` method has been called. """ return not self._camera @property def recording(self): """ Returns ``True`` if the :meth:`start_recording` method has been called, and no :meth:`stop_recording` call has been made yet. """ return any( isinstance(e, PiVideoEncoder) and e.active for e in self._encoders.values() ) @property def previewing(self): """ Returns ``True`` if the :meth:`start_preview` method has been called, and no :meth:`stop_preview` call has been made yet. .. deprecated:: 1.8 Test whether :attr:`preview` is ``None`` instead. """ warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.previewing is deprecated; test PiCamera.preview ' 'is not None instead')) return isinstance(self._preview, PiPreviewRenderer) @property def revision(self): """ Returns a string representing the revision of the Pi's camera module. At the time of writing, the string returned is 'ov5647' for the V1 module, and 'imx219' for the V2 module. """ return self._revision @property def exif_tags(self): """ Holds a mapping of the Exif tags to apply to captured images. .. note:: Please note that Exif tagging is only supported with the ``jpeg`` format. By default several Exif tags are automatically applied to any images taken with the :meth:`capture` method: ``IFD0.Make`` (which is set to ``RaspberryPi``), ``IFD0.Model`` (which is set to the camera's revision string), and three timestamp tags: ``IFD0.DateTime``, ``EXIF.DateTimeOriginal``, and ``EXIF.DateTimeDigitized`` which are all set to the current date and time just before the picture is taken. If you wish to set additional Exif tags, or override any of the aforementioned tags, simply add entries to the exif_tags map before calling :meth:`capture`. For example:: camera.exif_tags['IFD0.Copyright'] = 'Copyright (c) 2013 Foo Industries' The Exif standard mandates ASCII encoding for all textual values, hence strings containing non-ASCII characters will cause an encoding error to be raised when :meth:`capture` is called. If you wish to set binary values, use a :func:`bytes` value:: camera.exif_tags['EXIF.UserComment'] = b'Something containing\\x00NULL characters' .. warning:: Binary Exif values are currently ignored; this appears to be a libmmal or firmware bug. You may also specify datetime values, integer, or float values, all of which will be converted to appropriate ASCII strings (datetime values are formatted as ``YYYY:MM:DD HH:MM:SS`` in accordance with the Exif standard). The currently supported Exif tags are: +-------+-------------------------------------------------------------+ | Group | Tags | +=======+=============================================================+ | IFD0, | ImageWidth, ImageLength, BitsPerSample, Compression, | | IFD1 | PhotometricInterpretation, ImageDescription, Make, Model, | | | StripOffsets, Orientation, SamplesPerPixel, RowsPerString, | | | StripByteCounts, Xresolution, Yresolution, | | | PlanarConfiguration, ResolutionUnit, TransferFunction, | | | Software, DateTime, Artist, WhitePoint, | | | PrimaryChromaticities, JPEGInterchangeFormat, | | | JPEGInterchangeFormatLength, YcbCrCoefficients, | | | YcbCrSubSampling, YcbCrPositioning, ReferenceBlackWhite, | | | Copyright | +-------+-------------------------------------------------------------+ | EXIF | ExposureTime, FNumber, ExposureProgram, | | | SpectralSensitivity, ISOSpeedRatings, OECF, ExifVersion, | | | DateTimeOriginal, DateTimeDigitized, | | | ComponentsConfiguration, CompressedBitsPerPixel, | | | ShutterSpeedValue, ApertureValue, BrightnessValue, | | | ExposureBiasValue, MaxApertureValue, SubjectDistance, | | | MeteringMode, LightSource, Flash, FocalLength, SubjectArea, | | | MakerNote, UserComment, SubSecTime, SubSecTimeOriginal, | | | SubSecTimeDigitized, FlashpixVersion, ColorSpace, | | | PixelXDimension, PixelYDimension, RelatedSoundFile, | | | FlashEnergy, SpacialFrequencyResponse, | | | FocalPlaneXResolution, FocalPlaneYResolution, | | | FocalPlaneResolutionUnit, SubjectLocation, ExposureIndex, | | | SensingMethod, FileSource, SceneType, CFAPattern, | | | CustomRendered, ExposureMode, WhiteBalance, | | | DigitalZoomRatio, FocalLengthIn35mmFilm, SceneCaptureType, | | | GainControl, Contrast, Saturation, Sharpness, | | | DeviceSettingDescription, SubjectDistanceRange, | | | ImageUniqueID | +-------+-------------------------------------------------------------+ | GPS | GPSVersionID, GPSLatitudeRef, GPSLatitude, GPSLongitudeRef, | | | GPSLongitude, GPSAltitudeRef, GPSAltitude, GPSTimeStamp, | | | GPSSatellites, GPSStatus, GPSMeasureMode, GPSDOP, | | | GPSSpeedRef, GPSSpeed, GPSTrackRef, GPSTrack, | | | GPSImgDirectionRef, GPSImgDirection, GPSMapDatum, | | | GPSDestLatitudeRef, GPSDestLatitude, GPSDestLongitudeRef, | | | GPSDestLongitude, GPSDestBearingRef, GPSDestBearing, | | | GPSDestDistanceRef, GPSDestDistance, GPSProcessingMethod, | | | GPSAreaInformation, GPSDateStamp, GPSDifferential | +-------+-------------------------------------------------------------+ | EINT | InteroperabilityIndex, InteroperabilityVersion, | | | RelatedImageFileFormat, RelatedImageWidth, | | | RelatedImageLength | +-------+-------------------------------------------------------------+ """ return self._exif_tags def _set_led(self, value): if not self._used_led: global GPIO if GPIO: try: GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM) GPIO.setwarnings(False) GPIO.setup(self._led_pin, GPIO.OUT, initial=GPIO.LOW) self._used_led = True except RuntimeError: # We're probably not running as root. In this case, forget the # GPIO reference so we don't try anything further GPIO = None if not GPIO: raise PiCameraRuntimeError( "GPIO library not found, or not accessible; please install " "RPi.GPIO or run the script as root") GPIO.output(self._led_pin, bool(value)) led = property(None, _set_led, doc=""" Sets the state of the camera's LED via GPIO. If a GPIO library is available (only RPi.GPIO is currently supported), and if the python process has the necessary privileges (typically this means running as root via sudo), this property can be used to set the state of the camera's LED as a boolean value (``True`` is on, ``False`` is off). .. note:: This is a write-only property. While it can be used to control the camera's LED, you cannot query the state of the camera's LED using this property. .. note:: At present, the camera's LED cannot be controlled on the Pi 3 or 3+ (the GPIOs used to control the camera LED were re-routed to GPIO expander on these models). .. warning:: There are circumstances in which the camera firmware may override an existing LED setting. For example, in the case that the firmware resets the camera (as can happen with a CSI-2 timeout), the LED may also be reset. If you wish to guarantee that the LED remain off at all times, you may prefer to use the ``disable_camera_led`` option in `config.txt`_ (this has the added advantage that GPIO access is not required, at least for LED control). .. _config.txt: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/config-txt.md """) def _get_raw_format(self): warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.raw_format is deprecated; use required format ' 'directly with capture methods instead')) return self._raw_format def _set_raw_format(self, value): warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.raw_format is deprecated; use required format ' 'directly with capture methods instead')) if value not in self.RAW_FORMATS: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid raw format: %s" % value) self._raw_format = value raw_format = property(_get_raw_format, _set_raw_format, doc=""" Retrieves or sets the raw format of the camera's ports. .. deprecated:: 1.0 Please use ``'yuv'`` or ``'rgb'`` directly as a format in the various capture methods instead. """) def _get_timestamp(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_SYSTEM_TIME] timestamp = property(_get_timestamp, doc=""" Retrieves the system time according to the camera firmware. The camera's timestamp is a 64-bit integer representing the number of microseconds since the last system boot. When the camera's :attr:`clock_mode` is ``'raw'`` the values returned by this attribute are comparable to those from the :attr:`frame` :attr:`~PiVideoFrame.timestamp` attribute. """) def _get_frame(self): self._check_camera_open() for e in self._encoders.values(): try: return e.frame except AttributeError: pass raise PiCameraRuntimeError( "Cannot query frame information when camera is not recording") frame = property(_get_frame, doc=""" Retrieves information about the current frame recorded from the camera. When video recording is active (after a call to :meth:`start_recording`), this attribute will return a :class:`PiVideoFrame` tuple containing information about the current frame that the camera is recording. If multiple video recordings are currently in progress (after multiple calls to :meth:`start_recording` with different values for the ``splitter_port`` parameter), which encoder's frame information is returned is arbitrary. If you require information from a specific encoder, you will need to extract it from :attr:`_encoders` explicitly. Querying this property when the camera is not recording will result in an exception. .. note:: There is a small window of time when querying this attribute will return ``None`` after calling :meth:`start_recording`. If this attribute returns ``None``, this means that the video encoder has been initialized, but the camera has not yet returned any frames. """) def _disable_camera(self): """ An internal method for disabling the camera, e.g. for re-configuration. This disables the splitter and preview connections (if they exist). """ self._splitter.connection.disable() self._preview.renderer.connection.disable() self._camera.disable() def _enable_camera(self): """ An internal method for enabling the camera after re-configuration. This ensures the splitter configuration is consistent, then re-enables the camera along with the splitter and preview connections. """ self._camera.enable() self._preview.renderer.connection.enable() self._splitter.connection.enable() def _configure_splitter(self): """ Ensures the splitter has the same format as the attached camera output port (the video port). This method is used to ensure the splitter configuration is sane, typically after :meth:`_configure_camera` is called. """ self._splitter.inputs[0].copy_from( self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT]) self._splitter.inputs[0].commit() def _control_callback(self, port, buf): try: if buf.command == mmal.MMAL_EVENT_ERROR: raise PiCameraRuntimeError( "No data received from sensor. Check all connections, " "including the SUNNY chip on the camera board") elif buf.command != mmal.MMAL_EVENT_PARAMETER_CHANGED: raise PiCameraRuntimeError( "Received unexpected camera control callback event, " "0x%08x" % buf[0].cmd) except Exception as exc: # Pass the exception to the main thread; next time # check_camera_open() is called this will get raised self._camera_exception = exc def _get_config(self): """ An internal method for obtaining configuration data to pass to the :meth:`_configure_camera` method. This is a namedtuple consisting of all configuration that cannot be changed while the camera is active. """ port_num = ( self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT if self._encoders else self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT ) framerate = Fraction(self._camera.outputs[port_num].framerate) if framerate == 0: mp = self._camera.outputs[port_num].params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FPS_RANGE] framerate = mo.PiFramerateRange(mp.fps_low, mp.fps_high) return PiCameraConfig( sensor_mode=self._camera.control.params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_CUSTOM_SENSOR_CONFIG], clock_mode=self._camera_config.use_stc_timestamp, resolution=mo.PiResolution( int(self._camera_config.max_stills_w), int(self._camera_config.max_stills_h) ), framerate=framerate, isp_blocks=self._camera.control.params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_ISP_BLOCK_OVERRIDE], colorspace=self._camera.outputs[0].colorspace ) def _configure_camera(self, old, new): """ An internal method for setting a new camera mode, framerate, resolution, clock_mode, and/or ISP blocks. This method is used by the setters of the :attr:`resolution`, :attr:`framerate`, :attr:`framerate_range`, :attr:`sensor_mode`, and :attr:`isp_blocks` properties. It assumes the camera is currently disabled. The *old* and *new* arguments are :class:`PiCameraConfig` structures. Both are required to ensure correct operation on older firmwares (specifically that we don't try to set the sensor mode when both old and new modes are 0 or automatic). """ old_cc = mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_CONFIG_T.from_buffer_copy( self._camera_config) old_ports = [ ( port.framesize, port.framerate, port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FPS_RANGE] ) for port in self._camera.outputs ] if old.sensor_mode != 0 or new.sensor_mode != 0: # Old firmware support: only attempt to set sensor mode when # explicitly requested self._camera.control.params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_CUSTOM_SENSOR_CONFIG ] = new.sensor_mode if not self._camera.control.enabled: # One-time initial setup self._camera.control.enable(self._control_callback) preview_resolution = new.resolution elif ( self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT].framesize == self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT].framesize ): preview_resolution = new.resolution else: preview_resolution = self._camera.outputs[ self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT].framesize try: # Old firmware support: only attempt to set ISP block override when # explicitly requested if ( old.isp_blocks not in (0, 0xFFFFFFFF) or new.isp_blocks not in (0, 0xFFFFFFFF)): self._camera.control.params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_ISP_BLOCK_OVERRIDE ] = new.isp_blocks try: fps_low, fps_high = new.framerate except TypeError: fps_low = fps_high = new.framerate else: new = new._replace(framerate=0) fps_range = mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FPS_RANGE_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_HEADER_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FPS_RANGE, ct.sizeof(mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FPS_RANGE_T) ), fps_low=mo.to_rational(fps_low), fps_high=mo.to_rational(fps_high), ) cc = self._camera_config cc.max_stills_w = new.resolution.width cc.max_stills_h = new.resolution.height cc.stills_yuv422 = 0 cc.one_shot_stills = 1 cc.max_preview_video_w = new.resolution.width cc.max_preview_video_h = new.resolution.height cc.num_preview_video_frames = max(3, fps_high // 10) cc.stills_capture_circular_buffer_height = 0 cc.fast_preview_resume = 0 cc.use_stc_timestamp = new.clock_mode self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_CONFIG] = cc # Clamp preview resolution to camera's resolution if ( preview_resolution.width > new.resolution.width or preview_resolution.height > new.resolution.height ): preview_resolution = new.resolution for port in self._camera.outputs: port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FPS_RANGE] = fps_range if port.index == self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT: port.framesize = preview_resolution else: port.framesize = new.resolution port.framerate = new.framerate port.colorspace = new.colorspace port.commit() except: # If anything goes wrong, restore original resolution and # framerate otherwise the camera can be left in unusual states # (camera config not matching ports, etc). self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_CONFIG] = old_cc self._camera_config = old_cc for port, (res, fps, fps_range) in zip(self._camera.outputs, old_ports): port.framesize = res port.framerate = fps port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FPS_RANGE] = fps_range port.commit() raise def _get_framerate(self): self._check_camera_open() port_num = ( self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT if self._encoders else self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT ) return mo.PiCameraFraction(self._camera.outputs[port_num].framerate) def _set_framerate(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._check_recording_stopped() value = mo.to_fraction(value, den_limit=256) if not (0 < value <= self.MAX_FRAMERATE): raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid framerate: %.2ffps" % value) config = self._get_config() self._disable_camera() self._configure_camera(config, config._replace(framerate=value)) self._configure_splitter() self._enable_camera() framerate = property(_get_framerate, _set_framerate, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the framerate at which video-port based image captures, video recordings, and previews will run. When queried, the :attr:`framerate` property returns the rate at which the camera's video and preview ports will operate as a :class:`~fractions.Fraction` instance (which can be easily converted to an :class:`int` or :class:`float`). If :attr:`framerate_range` has been set, then :attr:`framerate` will be 0 which indicates that a dynamic range of framerates is being used. .. note:: For backwards compatibility, a derivative of the :class:`~fractions.Fraction` class is actually used which permits the value to be treated as a tuple of ``(numerator, denominator)``. Setting and retrieving framerate as a ``(numerator, denominator)`` tuple is deprecated and will be removed in 2.0. Please use a :class:`~fractions.Fraction` instance instead (which is just as accurate and also permits direct use with math operators). When set, the property configures the camera so that the next call to recording and previewing methods will use the new framerate. Setting this property implicitly sets :attr:`framerate_range` so that the low and high values are equal to the new framerate. The framerate can be specified as an :ref:`int <typesnumeric>`, :ref:`float <typesnumeric>`, :class:`~fractions.Fraction`, or a ``(numerator, denominator)`` tuple. For example, the following definitions are all equivalent:: from fractions import Fraction camera.framerate = 30 camera.framerate = 30 / 1 camera.framerate = Fraction(30, 1) camera.framerate = (30, 1) # deprecated The camera must not be closed, and no recording must be active when the property is set. .. note:: This attribute, in combination with :attr:`resolution`, determines the mode that the camera operates in. The actual sensor framerate and resolution used by the camera is influenced, but not directly set, by this property. See :attr:`sensor_mode` for more information. The initial value of this property can be specified with the *framerate* parameter in the :class:`PiCamera` constructor, and will default to 30 if not specified. """) @property def sensor_modes(self): """ Returns a mapping describing the available sensor modes for the camera's :attr:`revision`. This read-only attribute returns a dictionary mapping sensor mode numbers (1..7) to instances of :class:`PiSensorMode` which contain the resolution, range of framerates, and other details about the mode. Note that the default mode (0) is not represented, as this indicates that the mode should be selected automatically by the firmware based on the requested :attr:`resolution` and :attr:`framerate`. .. versionadded:: 1.14 """ return PiCamera.SENSOR_MODES[self.revision] def _get_sensor_mode(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_CUSTOM_SENSOR_CONFIG] def _set_sensor_mode(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._check_recording_stopped() try: if not (0 <= value <= 7): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid sensor mode: %d (valid range 0..7)" % value) except TypeError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid sensor mode: %s" % value) config = self._get_config() self._disable_camera() self._configure_camera(config, config._replace(sensor_mode=value)) self._configure_splitter() self._enable_camera() sensor_mode = property(_get_sensor_mode, _set_sensor_mode, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the input mode of the camera's sensor. This is an advanced property which can be used to control the camera's sensor mode. By default, mode 0 is used which allows the camera to automatically select an input mode based on the requested :attr:`resolution` and :attr:`framerate`. Valid values are currently between 0 and 7. The set of valid sensor modes (along with the heuristic used to select one automatically) are detailed in the :ref:`camera_modes` section of the documentation. .. note:: At the time of writing, setting this property does nothing unless the camera has been initialized with a sensor mode other than 0. Furthermore, some mode transitions appear to require setting the property twice (in a row). This appears to be a firmware limitation. The initial value of this property can be specified with the *sensor_mode* parameter in the :class:`PiCamera` constructor, and will default to 0 if not specified. .. versionadded:: 1.9 """) def _get_clock_mode(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._CLOCK_MODES_R[self._camera_config.use_stc_timestamp] def _set_clock_mode(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._check_recording_stopped() try: clock_mode = self.CLOCK_MODES[value] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid clock mode %s" % value) config = self._get_config() self._disable_camera() self._configure_camera(config, config._replace(clock_mode=clock_mode)) self._configure_splitter() self._enable_camera() clock_mode = property(_get_clock_mode, _set_clock_mode, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the mode of the camera's clock. This is an advanced property which can be used to control the nature of the frame timestamps available from the :attr:`frame` property. When this is "reset" (the default) each frame's timestamp will be relative to the start of the recording. When this is "raw", each frame's timestamp will be relative to the last initialization of the camera. The initial value of this property can be specified with the *clock_mode* parameter in the :class:`PiCamera` constructor, and will default to "reset" if not specified. .. versionadded:: 1.11 """) def _get_isp_blocks(self): self._check_camera_open() # XXX Older firmware support? value = self._camera.control.params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_ISP_BLOCK_OVERRIDE] return { v for k, v in self._ISP_BLOCKS_R.items() if value == 0 or k & value } def _set_isp_blocks(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._check_recording_stopped() value = set(value) invalid = value - set(self.ISP_BLOCKS.keys()) if invalid: raise PiCameraValueerror("Invalid ISP block %s" % invalid.pop()) isp_blocks = reduce(and_, (~v for k, v in self.ISP_BLOCKS.items() if k not in value), 0xFFFFFFFF) config = self._get_config() self._disable_camera() self._configure_camera(config, config._replace(isp_blocks=isp_blocks)) self._configure_splitter() self._enable_camera() isp_blocks = property(_get_isp_blocks, _set_isp_blocks, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets which ISP blocks are enabled for processing. This is an advanced property which can be used to disable various processes within the camera's firmware. The value is a set of strings indicating which blocks are currently active. Valid strings that can be included are: {values} It is strongly recommended that modifications to this property are done by union or difference rather than straight assignment. Control for further ISP blocks may be added in future and this will ensure your code does not inadvertantly disable blocks it does not intend to. For instance to disable the block responsible for AWB gains:: camera.isp_blocks -= {{'white-balance'}} Then to re-enable the same block:: camera.isp_blocks |= {{'white-balance'}} The camera must not be closed, and no recording must be active when the property is set. .. versionadded:: 1.14 """.format(values=docstring_values(ISP_BLOCKS))) def _get_colorspace(self): return self._COLORSPACES_R[self._camera.outputs[0].colorspace] def _set_colorspace(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._check_recording_stopped() try: colorspace = self.COLORSPACES[value] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid colorspace %s" % value) config = self._get_config() self._disable_camera() self._configure_camera(config, config._replace(colorspace=colorspace)) self._configure_splitter() self._enable_camera() colorspace = property(_get_colorspace, _set_colorspace, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the `color space`_ that the camera uses for conversion between the `YUV`_ and RGB systems. The value is a string that represents which of a series of fixed conversion tables are used by the camera firmware (the firmware works largely in the YUV color system internally). The following strings are the valid values: {values} The "bt601" and "bt709" values correspond to the standard `SDTV and HDTV tables`_. The "auto" value is the default and corresponds to "bt601" in practice. One of these values is likely what you want when recording H.264 video. However, when recording MJPEG video, you may want to use the "jfif" table instead as it produces luma values in the 0-255 range, rather than the 16-235 range produced by the standard tables. The camera must not be closed, and no recording must be active when the property is set. .. _color space: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_space .. _YUV: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YUV .. _SDTV and HDTV tables: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YUV#Conversion_to/from_RGB """.format(values=docstring_values(COLORSPACES))) def _get_resolution(self): self._check_camera_open() return mo.PiResolution( int(self._camera_config.max_stills_w), int(self._camera_config.max_stills_h) ) def _set_resolution(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._check_recording_stopped() value = mo.to_resolution(value) if not ( (0 < value.width <= self.MAX_RESOLUTION.width) and (0 < value.height <= self.MAX_RESOLUTION.height)): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid resolution requested: %r" % (value,)) config = self._get_config() self._disable_camera() self._configure_camera(config, config._replace(resolution=value)) self._configure_splitter() self._enable_camera() resolution = property(_get_resolution, _set_resolution, doc=""" Retrieves or sets the resolution at which image captures, video recordings, and previews will be captured. When queried, the :attr:`resolution` property returns the resolution at which the camera will operate as a tuple of ``(width, height)`` measured in pixels. This is the resolution that the :meth:`capture` method will produce images at, and the resolution that :meth:`start_recording` will produce videos at. When set, the property configures the camera so that the next call to these methods will use the new resolution. The resolution can be specified as a ``(width, height)`` tuple, as a string formatted ``'WIDTHxHEIGHT'``, or as a string containing a commonly recognized `display resolution`_ name (e.g. "VGA", "HD", "1080p", etc). For example, the following definitions are all equivalent:: camera.resolution = (1280, 720) camera.resolution = '1280x720' camera.resolution = '1280 x 720' camera.resolution = 'HD' camera.resolution = '720p' The camera must not be closed, and no recording must be active when the property is set. .. note:: This attribute, in combination with :attr:`framerate`, determines the mode that the camera operates in. The actual sensor framerate and resolution used by the camera is influenced, but not directly set, by this property. See :attr:`sensor_mode` for more information. The initial value of this property can be specified with the *resolution* parameter in the :class:`PiCamera` constructor, and will default to the display's resolution or 1280x720 if the display has been disabled (with ``tvservice -o``). .. versionchanged:: 1.11 Resolution permitted to be set as a string. Preview resolution added as separate property. .. _display resolution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphics_display_resolution """) def _get_framerate_range(self): self._check_camera_open() port_num = ( self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT if self._encoders else self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT ) mp = self._camera.outputs[port_num].params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FPS_RANGE] return mo.PiFramerateRange(mp.fps_low, mp.fps_high) def _set_framerate_range(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._check_recording_stopped() low, high = value low = mo.to_fraction(low, den_limit=256) high = mo.to_fraction(high, den_limit=256) if not (0 < low <= self.MAX_FRAMERATE): raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid low framerate: %.2ffps" % low) if not (0 < high <= self.MAX_FRAMERATE): raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid high framerate: %.2ffps" % high) if high < low: raise PiCameraValueError("framerate_range is backwards") config = self._get_config() self._disable_camera() self._configure_camera(config, config._replace(framerate=(low, high))) self._configure_splitter() self._enable_camera() framerate_range = property(_get_framerate_range, _set_framerate_range, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets a range between which the camera's framerate is allowed to float. When queried, the :attr:`framerate_range` property returns a :func:`~collections.namedtuple` derivative with ``low`` and ``high`` components (index 0 and 1 respectively) which specify the limits of the permitted framerate range. When set, the property configures the camera so that the next call to recording and previewing methods will use the new framerate range. Setting this property will implicitly set the :attr:`framerate` property to 0 (indicating that a dynamic range of framerates is in use by the camera). .. note:: Use of this property prevents use of :attr:`framerate_delta` (there would be little point in making fractional adjustments to the framerate when the framerate itself is variable). The low and high framerates can be specified as :ref:`int <typesnumeric>`, :ref:`float <typesnumeric>`, or :class:`~fractions.Fraction` values. For example, the following definitions are all equivalent:: from fractions import Fraction camera.framerate_range = (0.16666, 30) camera.framerate_range = (Fraction(1, 6), 30 / 1) camera.framerate_range = (Fraction(1, 6), Fraction(30, 1)) The camera must not be closed, and no recording must be active when the property is set. .. note:: This attribute, like :attr:`framerate`, determines the mode that the camera operates in. The actual sensor framerate and resolution used by the camera is influenced, but not directly set, by this property. See :attr:`sensor_mode` for more information. .. versionadded:: 1.13 """) def _get_framerate_delta(self): self._check_camera_open() if self.framerate == 0: raise PiCameraValueError( 'framerate_delta cannot be used with framerate_range') port_num = ( self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT if self._encoders else self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT ) return self._camera.outputs[port_num].params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FRAME_RATE] - self.framerate def _set_framerate_delta(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if self.framerate == 0: raise PiCameraValueError( 'framerate_delta cannot be used with framerate_range') value = mo.to_fraction(self.framerate + value, den_limit=256) self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_PREVIEW_PORT].params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FRAME_RATE] = value self._camera.outputs[self.CAMERA_VIDEO_PORT].params[ mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FRAME_RATE] = value framerate_delta = property(_get_framerate_delta, _set_framerate_delta, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets a fractional amount that is added to the camera's framerate for the purpose of minor framerate adjustments. When queried, the :attr:`framerate_delta` property returns the amount that the camera's :attr:`framerate` has been adjusted. This defaults to 0 (so the camera's framerate is the actual framerate used). When set, the property adjusts the camera's framerate on the fly. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. Thus the framerate used by the camera is actually :attr:`framerate` + :attr:`framerate_delta`. .. note:: Framerates deltas can be fractional with adjustments as small as 1/256th of an fps possible (finer adjustments will be rounded). With an appropriately tuned PID controller, this can be used to achieve synchronization between the camera framerate and other devices. If the new framerate demands a mode switch (such as moving between a low framerate and a high framerate mode), currently active recordings may drop a frame. This should only happen when specifying quite large deltas, or when framerate is at the boundary of a sensor mode (e.g. 49fps). The framerate delta can be specified as an :ref:`int <typesnumeric>`, :ref:`float <typesnumeric>`, :class:`~fractions.Fraction` or a ``(numerator, denominator)`` tuple. For example, the following definitions are all equivalent:: from fractions import Fraction camera.framerate_delta = 0.5 camera.framerate_delta = 1 / 2 # in python 3 camera.framerate_delta = Fraction(1, 2) camera.framerate_delta = (1, 2) # deprecated .. note:: This property is implicitly reset to 0 when :attr:`framerate` or :attr:`framerate_range` is set. When :attr:`framerate` is 0 (indicating that :attr:`framerate_range` is set), this property cannot be used. (there would be little point in making fractional adjustments to the framerate when the framerate itself is variable). .. versionadded:: 1.11 """) def _get_still_stats(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAPTURE_STATS_PASS] def _set_still_stats(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAPTURE_STATS_PASS] = value still_stats = property(_get_still_stats, _set_still_stats, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets whether statistics will be calculated from still frames or the prior preview frame. When queried, the :attr:`still_stats` property returns a boolean value indicating when scene statistics will be calculated for still captures (that is, captures where the *use_video_port* parameter of :meth:`capture` is ``False``). When this property is ``False`` (the default), statistics will be calculated from the preceding preview frame (this also applies when the preview is not visible). When `True`, statistics will be calculated from the captured image itself. When set, the propetry controls when scene statistics will be calculated for still captures. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``False``. The advantages to calculating scene statistics from the captured image are that time between startup and capture is reduced as only the AGC (automatic gain control) has to converge. The downside is that processing time for captures increases and that white balance and gain won't necessarily match the preview. .. warning:: Enabling the still statistics pass will `override fixed white balance`_ gains (set via :attr:`awb_gains` and :attr:`awb_mode`). .. _override fixed white balance: https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?p=875772&sid=92fa4ea70d1fe24590a4cdfb4a10c489#p875772 .. versionadded:: 1.9 """) def _get_saturation(self): self._check_camera_open() return int(self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_SATURATION] * 100) def _set_saturation(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if not (-100 <= value <= 100): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid saturation value: %d (valid range -100..100)" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_SATURATION] = Fraction(value, 100) saturation = property(_get_saturation, _set_saturation, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the saturation setting of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`saturation` property returns the color saturation of the camera as an integer between -100 and 100. When set, the property adjusts the saturation of the camera. Saturation can be adjusted while previews or recordings are in progress. The default value is 0. """) def _get_sharpness(self): self._check_camera_open() return int(self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_SHARPNESS] * 100) def _set_sharpness(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if not (-100 <= value <= 100): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid sharpness value: %d (valid range -100..100)" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_SHARPNESS] = Fraction(value, 100) sharpness = property(_get_sharpness, _set_sharpness, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the sharpness setting of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`sharpness` property returns the sharpness level of the camera (a measure of the amount of post-processing to reduce or increase image sharpness) as an integer between -100 and 100. When set, the property adjusts the sharpness of the camera. Sharpness can be adjusted while previews or recordings are in progress. The default value is 0. """) def _get_contrast(self): self._check_camera_open() return int(self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CONTRAST] * 100) def _set_contrast(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if not (-100 <= value <= 100): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid contrast value: %d (valid range -100..100)" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CONTRAST] = Fraction(value, 100) contrast = property(_get_contrast, _set_contrast, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the contrast setting of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`contrast` property returns the contrast level of the camera as an integer between -100 and 100. When set, the property adjusts the contrast of the camera. Contrast can be adjusted while previews or recordings are in progress. The default value is 0. """) def _get_brightness(self): self._check_camera_open() return int(self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_BRIGHTNESS] * 100) def _set_brightness(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if not (0 <= value <= 100): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid brightness value: %d (valid range 0..100)" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_BRIGHTNESS] = Fraction(value, 100) brightness = property(_get_brightness, _set_brightness, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the brightness setting of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`brightness` property returns the brightness level of the camera as an integer between 0 and 100. When set, the property adjusts the brightness of the camera. Brightness can be adjusted while previews or recordings are in progress. The default value is 50. """) def _get_shutter_speed(self): self._check_camera_open() return int(self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_SHUTTER_SPEED]) def _set_shutter_speed(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_SHUTTER_SPEED] = value shutter_speed = property(_get_shutter_speed, _set_shutter_speed, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the shutter speed of the camera in microseconds. When queried, the :attr:`shutter_speed` property returns the shutter speed of the camera in microseconds, or 0 which indicates that the speed will be automatically determined by the auto-exposure algorithm. Faster shutter times naturally require greater amounts of illumination and vice versa. When set, the property adjusts the shutter speed of the camera, which most obviously affects the illumination of subsequently captured images. Shutter speed can be adjusted while previews or recordings are running. The default value is 0 (auto). .. note:: You can query the :attr:`exposure_speed` attribute to determine the actual shutter speed being used when this attribute is set to 0. Please note that this capability requires an up to date firmware (#692 or later). .. note:: In later firmwares, this attribute is limited by the value of the :attr:`framerate` attribute. For example, if framerate is set to 30fps, the shutter speed cannot be slower than 33,333µs (1/fps). """) def _get_exposure_speed(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_SETTINGS].exposure exposure_speed = property(_get_exposure_speed, doc="""\ Retrieves the current shutter speed of the camera. When queried, this property returns the shutter speed currently being used by the camera. If you have set :attr:`shutter_speed` to a non-zero value, then :attr:`exposure_speed` and :attr:`shutter_speed` should be equal. However, if :attr:`shutter_speed` is set to 0 (auto), then you can read the actual shutter speed being used from this attribute. The value is returned as an integer representing a number of microseconds. This is a read-only property. .. versionadded:: 1.6 """) def _get_analog_gain(self): self._check_camera_open() return mo.to_fraction( self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_SETTINGS].analog_gain) analog_gain = property(_get_analog_gain, doc="""\ Retrieves the current analog gain of the camera. When queried, this property returns the analog gain currently being used by the camera. The value represents the analog gain of the sensor prior to digital conversion. The value is returned as a :class:`~fractions.Fraction` instance. .. versionadded:: 1.6 """) def _get_digital_gain(self): self._check_camera_open() return mo.to_fraction( self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_SETTINGS].digital_gain) digital_gain = property(_get_digital_gain, doc="""\ Retrieves the current digital gain of the camera. When queried, this property returns the digital gain currently being used by the camera. The value represents the digital gain the camera applies after conversion of the sensor's analog output. The value is returned as a :class:`~fractions.Fraction` instance. .. versionadded:: 1.6 """) def _get_video_denoise(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_VIDEO_DENOISE] def _set_video_denoise(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_VIDEO_DENOISE] = value video_denoise = property(_get_video_denoise, _set_video_denoise, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets whether denoise will be applied to video recordings. When queried, the :attr:`video_denoise` property returns a boolean value indicating whether or not the camera software will apply a denoise algorithm to video recordings. When set, the property activates or deactivates the denoise algorithm for video recordings. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``True``. .. versionadded:: 1.7 """) def _get_image_denoise(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_STILLS_DENOISE] def _set_image_denoise(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_STILLS_DENOISE] = value image_denoise = property(_get_image_denoise, _set_image_denoise, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets whether denoise will be applied to image captures. When queried, the :attr:`image_denoise` property returns a boolean value indicating whether or not the camera software will apply a denoise algorithm to image captures. When set, the property activates or deactivates the denoise algorithm for image captures. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``True``. .. versionadded:: 1.7 """) def _get_drc_strength(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._DRC_STRENGTHS_R[ self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_DYNAMIC_RANGE_COMPRESSION].strength ] def _set_drc_strength(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_DYNAMIC_RANGE_COMPRESSION] mp.strength = self.DRC_STRENGTHS[value] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid dynamic range compression strength: %s" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_DYNAMIC_RANGE_COMPRESSION] = mp drc_strength = property(_get_drc_strength, _set_drc_strength, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the dynamic range compression strength of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`drc_strength` property returns a string indicating the amount of `dynamic range compression`_ the camera applies to images. When set, the attributes adjusts the strength of the dynamic range compression applied to the camera's output. Valid values are given in the list below: {values} The default value is ``'off'``. All possible values for the attribute can be obtained from the ``PiCamera.DRC_STRENGTHS`` attribute. .. warning:: Enabling DRC will `override fixed white balance`_ gains (set via :attr:`awb_gains` and :attr:`awb_mode`). .. _dynamic range compression: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gain_compression .. _override fixed white balance: https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?p=875772&sid=92fa4ea70d1fe24590a4cdfb4a10c489#p875772 .. versionadded:: 1.6 """.format(values=docstring_values(DRC_STRENGTHS))) def _get_ISO(self): warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.ISO is deprecated; use PiCamera.iso instead')) return self.iso def _set_ISO(self, value): warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.ISO is deprecated; use PiCamera.iso instead')) self.iso = value ISO = property(_get_ISO, _set_ISO, doc=""" Retrieves or sets the apparent ISO setting of the camera. .. deprecated:: 1.8 Please use the :attr:`iso` attribute instead. """) def _get_iso(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ISO] def _set_iso(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: if not (0 <= value <= 1600): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid iso value: %d (valid range 0..800)" % value) except TypeError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid iso value: %s" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ISO] = value iso = property(_get_iso, _set_iso, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the apparent ISO setting of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`iso` property returns the ISO setting of the camera, a value which represents the `sensitivity of the camera to light`_. Lower values (e.g. 100) imply less sensitivity than higher values (e.g. 400 or 800). Lower sensitivities tend to produce less "noisy" (smoother) images, but operate poorly in low light conditions. When set, the property adjusts the sensitivity of the camera (by adjusting the :attr:`analog_gain` and :attr:`digital_gain`). Valid values are between 0 (auto) and 1600. The actual value used when iso is explicitly set will be one of the following values (whichever is closest): 100, 200, 320, 400, 500, 640, 800. .. note:: Some users on the Pi camera forum have noted that higher ISO values than 800 (specifically up to 1600) can be achieved in certain conditions with :attr:`exposure_mode` set to ``'sports'`` and :attr:`iso` set to 0. It doesn't appear to be possible to manually request an ISO setting higher than 800, but the picamera library will permit settings up to 1600 in case the underlying firmware permits such settings in particular circumstances. On the V1 camera module, non-zero ISO values attempt to fix overall gain at various levels. For example, ISO 100 attempts to provide an overall gain of 1.0, ISO 200 attempts to provide overall gain of 2.0, etc. The algorithm prefers analog gain over digital gain to reduce noise. On the V2 camera module, ISO 100 attempts to produce overall gain of ~1.84, and ISO 800 attempts to produce overall gain of ~14.72 (the V2 camera module was calibrated against the `ISO film speed`_ standard). The attribute can be adjusted while previews or recordings are in progress. The default value is 0 which means automatically determine a value according to image-taking conditions. .. note:: Certain :attr:`exposure_mode` values override the ISO setting. For example, ``'off'`` fixes :attr:`analog_gain` and :attr:`digital_gain` entirely, preventing this property from adjusting them when set. .. _sensitivity of the camera to light: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_speed#Digital .. _ISO film speed: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_speed#Current_system:_ISO """) def _get_meter_mode(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._METER_MODES_R[ self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_EXP_METERING_MODE].value ] def _set_meter_mode(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_EXP_METERING_MODE] mp.value = self.METER_MODES[value] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid metering mode: %s" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_EXP_METERING_MODE] = mp meter_mode = property(_get_meter_mode, _set_meter_mode, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the metering mode of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`meter_mode` property returns the method by which the camera `determines the exposure`_ as one of the following strings: {values} When set, the property adjusts the camera's metering mode. All modes set up two regions: a center region, and an outer region. The major `difference between each mode`_ is the size of the center region. The ``'backlit'`` mode has the largest central region (30% of the width), while ``'spot'`` has the smallest (10% of the width). The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``'average'``. All possible values for the attribute can be obtained from the ``PiCamera.METER_MODES`` attribute. .. _determines the exposure: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metering_mode .. _difference between each mode: https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?p=565644#p565644 """.format(values=docstring_values(METER_MODES))) def _get_video_stabilization(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_VIDEO_STABILISATION] def _set_video_stabilization(self, value): self._check_camera_open() self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_VIDEO_STABILISATION] = value video_stabilization = property( _get_video_stabilization, _set_video_stabilization, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the video stabilization mode of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`video_stabilization` property returns a boolean value indicating whether or not the camera attempts to compensate for motion. When set, the property activates or deactivates video stabilization. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``False``. .. note:: The built-in video stabilization only accounts for `vertical and horizontal motion`_, not rotation. .. _vertical and horizontal motion: https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?p=342667&sid=ec7d95e887ab74a90ffaab87888c48cd#p342667 """) def _get_exposure_compensation(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_EXPOSURE_COMP] def _set_exposure_compensation(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: if not (-25 <= value <= 25): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid exposure compensation value: " "%d (valid range -25..25)" % value) except TypeError: raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid exposure compensation value: %s" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_EXPOSURE_COMP] = value exposure_compensation = property( _get_exposure_compensation, _set_exposure_compensation, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the exposure compensation level of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`exposure_compensation` property returns an integer value between -25 and 25 indicating the exposure level of the camera. Larger values result in brighter images. When set, the property adjusts the camera's exposure compensation level. Each increment represents 1/6th of a stop. Hence setting the attribute to 6 increases exposure by 1 stop. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is 0. """) def _get_exposure_mode(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._EXPOSURE_MODES_R[ self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_EXPOSURE_MODE].value ] def _set_exposure_mode(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_EXPOSURE_MODE] mp.value = self.EXPOSURE_MODES[value] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid exposure mode: %s" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_EXPOSURE_MODE] = mp exposure_mode = property(_get_exposure_mode, _set_exposure_mode, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the exposure mode of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`exposure_mode` property returns a string representing the exposure setting of the camera. The possible values can be obtained from the ``PiCamera.EXPOSURE_MODES`` attribute, and are as follows: {values} When set, the property adjusts the camera's exposure mode. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``'auto'``. .. note:: Exposure mode ``'off'`` is special: this disables the camera's automatic gain control, fixing the values of :attr:`digital_gain` and :attr:`analog_gain`. Please note that these properties are not directly settable (although they can be influenced by setting :attr:`iso` *prior* to fixing the gains), and default to low values when the camera is first initialized. Therefore it is important to let them settle on higher values before disabling automatic gain control otherwise all frames captured will appear black. """.format(values=docstring_values(EXPOSURE_MODES))) def _get_flash_mode(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._FLASH_MODES_R[ self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FLASH].value ] def _set_flash_mode(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FLASH] mp.value = self.FLASH_MODES[value] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid flash mode: %s" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_FLASH] = mp flash_mode = property(_get_flash_mode, _set_flash_mode, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the flash mode of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`flash_mode` property returns a string representing the flash setting of the camera. The possible values can be obtained from the ``PiCamera.FLASH_MODES`` attribute, and are as follows: {values} When set, the property adjusts the camera's flash mode. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``'off'``. .. note:: You must define which GPIO pins the camera is to use for flash and privacy indicators. This is done within the `Device Tree configuration`_ which is considered an advanced topic. Specifically, you need to define pins ``FLASH_0_ENABLE`` and optionally ``FLASH_0_INDICATOR`` (for the privacy indicator). More information can be found in this :ref:`recipe <flash_configuration>`. .. _Device Tree configuration: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/pin-configuration.md .. versionadded:: 1.10 """.format(values=docstring_values(FLASH_MODES))) def _get_awb_mode(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._AWB_MODES_R[ self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_AWB_MODE].value ] def _set_awb_mode(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_AWB_MODE] mp.value = self.AWB_MODES[value] except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid auto-white-balance mode: %s" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_AWB_MODE] = mp awb_mode = property(_get_awb_mode, _set_awb_mode, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the auto-white-balance mode of the camera. When queried, the :attr:`awb_mode` property returns a string representing the auto white balance setting of the camera. The possible values can be obtained from the ``PiCamera.AWB_MODES`` attribute, and are as follows: {values} When set, the property adjusts the camera's auto-white-balance mode. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``'auto'``. .. note:: AWB mode ``'off'`` is special: this disables the camera's automatic white balance permitting manual control of the white balance via the :attr:`awb_gains` property. However, even with AWB disabled, some attributes (specifically :attr:`still_stats` and :attr:`drc_strength`) can cause AWB re-calculations. """.format(values=docstring_values(AWB_MODES))) def _get_awb_gains(self): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CAMERA_SETTINGS] return ( mo.to_fraction(mp.awb_red_gain), mo.to_fraction(mp.awb_blue_gain), ) def _set_awb_gains(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: red_gain, blue_gain = value except (ValueError, TypeError): red_gain = blue_gain = value if not (0.0 <= red_gain <= 8.0 and 0.0 <= blue_gain <= 8.0): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid gain(s) in (%f, %f) (valid range: 0.0-8.0)" % ( red_gain, blue_gain)) mp = mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_AWB_GAINS_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_HEADER_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CUSTOM_AWB_GAINS, ct.sizeof(mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_AWB_GAINS_T) ), mo.to_rational(red_gain), mo.to_rational(blue_gain), ) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_CUSTOM_AWB_GAINS] = mp awb_gains = property(_get_awb_gains, _set_awb_gains, doc="""\ Gets or sets the auto-white-balance gains of the camera. When queried, this attribute returns a tuple of values representing the `(red, blue)` balance of the camera. The `red` and `blue` values are returned :class:`~fractions.Fraction` instances. The values will be between 0.0 and 8.0. When set, this attribute adjusts the camera's auto-white-balance gains. The property can be specified as a single value in which case both red and blue gains will be adjusted equally, or as a `(red, blue)` tuple. Values can be specified as an :ref:`int <typesnumeric>`, :ref:`float <typesnumeric>` or :class:`~fractions.Fraction` and each gain must be between 0.0 and 8.0. Typical values for the gains are between 0.9 and 1.9. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. .. note:: This attribute only has an effect when :attr:`awb_mode` is set to ``'off'``. Also note that even with AWB disabled, some attributes (specifically :attr:`still_stats` and :attr:`drc_strength`) can cause AWB re-calculations. .. versionchanged:: 1.6 Prior to version 1.6, this attribute was write-only. """) def _get_image_effect(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._IMAGE_EFFECTS_R[ self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_IMAGE_EFFECT].value ] def _set_image_effect(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_IMAGE_EFFECT] mp.value = self.IMAGE_EFFECTS[value] self._image_effect_params = None except KeyError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid image effect: %s" % value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_IMAGE_EFFECT] = mp image_effect = property(_get_image_effect, _set_image_effect, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the current image effect applied by the camera. When queried, the :attr:`image_effect` property returns a string representing the effect the camera will apply to captured video. The possible values can be obtained from the ``PiCamera.IMAGE_EFFECTS`` attribute, and are as follows: {values} When set, the property changes the effect applied by the camera. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress, but only certain effects work while recording video (notably ``'negative'`` and ``'solarize'``). The default value is ``'none'``. """.format(values=docstring_values(IMAGE_EFFECTS))) def _get_image_effect_params(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._image_effect_params def _set_image_effect_params(self, value): self._check_camera_open() to_int = lambda x: int(x) to_byte = lambda x: max(0, min(255, int(x))) to_bool = lambda x: (0, 1)[bool(x)] to_8dot8 = lambda x: int(x * 256) valid_transforms = { 'solarize': [ (to_bool, to_byte, to_byte, to_byte, to_byte), (to_byte, to_byte, to_byte, to_byte), (to_bool,), ], 'colorpoint': [ (lambda x: max(0, min(3, int(x))),), ], 'colorbalance': [ (to_8dot8, to_8dot8, to_8dot8, to_8dot8, to_int, to_int), (to_8dot8, to_8dot8, to_8dot8, to_8dot8), (to_8dot8, to_8dot8, to_8dot8), ], 'colorswap': [ (to_bool,), ], 'posterise': [ (lambda x: max(2, min(31, int(x))),), ], 'blur': [ (lambda x: max(1, min(2, int(x))),), ], 'film': [ (to_byte, to_byte, to_byte), ], 'watercolor': [ (), (to_byte, to_byte), ] } # Ensure params is a tuple try: params = tuple(i for i in value) except TypeError: params = (value,) # Find the parameter combination for the current effect effect = self.image_effect param_transforms = [ transforms for transforms in valid_transforms.get(effect, []) if len(transforms) == len(params) ] if not param_transforms: raise PiCameraValueError( 'invalid set of parameters for effect "%s"' % effect) param_transforms = param_transforms[0] params = tuple( transform(p) for (transform, p) in zip(param_transforms, params) ) mp = mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_IMAGEFX_PARAMETERS_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_HEADER_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_IMAGE_EFFECT_PARAMETERS, ct.sizeof(mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_IMAGEFX_PARAMETERS_T) ), effect=self.IMAGE_EFFECTS[effect], num_effect_params=len(params), effect_parameter=params, ) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_IMAGE_EFFECT_PARAMETERS] = mp self._image_effect_params = value image_effect_params = property( _get_image_effect_params, _set_image_effect_params, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the parameters for the current :attr:`effect <image_effect>`. When queried, the :attr:`image_effect_params` property either returns ``None`` (for effects which have no configurable parameters, or if no parameters have been configured), or a tuple of numeric values up to six elements long. When set, the property changes the parameters of the current :attr:`effect <image_effect>` as a sequence of numbers, or a single number. Attempting to set parameters on an effect which does not support parameters, or providing an incompatible set of parameters for an effect will raise a :exc:`PiCameraValueError` exception. The effects which have parameters, and what combinations those parameters can take is as follows: .. tabularcolumns:: |p{30mm}|p{25mm}|p{75mm}| +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | Effect | Parameters | Description | +====================+================+=========================================+ | ``'solarize'`` | *yuv*, | *yuv* controls whether data is | | | *x0*, *y1*, | processed as RGB (0) or YUV(1). Input | | | *y2*, *y3* | values from 0 to *x0* - 1 are remapped | | | | linearly onto the range 0 to *y0*. | | | | Values from *x0* to 255 are remapped | | | | linearly onto the range *y1* to *y2*. | | +----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | | *x0*, *y0*, | Same as above, but *yuv* defaults to | | | *y1*, *y2* | 0 (process as RGB). | | +----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | | *yuv* | Same as above, but *x0*, *y0*, *y1*, | | | | *y2* default to 128, 128, 128, 0 | | | | respectively. | +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | ``'colorpoint'`` | *quadrant* | *quadrant* specifies which quadrant | | | | of the U/V space to retain chroma | | | | from: 0=green, 1=red/yellow, 2=blue, | | | | 3=purple. There is no default; this | | | | effect does nothing until parameters | | | | are set. | +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | ``'colorbalance'`` | *lens*, | *lens* specifies the lens shading | | | *r*, *g*, *b*, | strength (0.0 to 256.0, where 0.0 | | | *u*, *v* | indicates lens shading has no effect). | | | | *r*, *g*, *b* are multipliers for their | | | | respective color channels (0.0 to | | | | 256.0). *u* and *v* are offsets added | | | | to the U/V plane (0 to 255). | | +----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | | *lens*, | Same as above but *u* are defaulted | | | *r*, *g*, *b* | to 0. | | +----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | | *lens*, | Same as above but *g* also defaults to | | | *r*, *b* | to 1.0. | +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | ``'colorswap'`` | *dir* | If *dir* is 0, swap RGB to BGR. If | | | | *dir* is 1, swap RGB to BRG. | +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | ``'posterise'`` | *steps* | Control the quantization steps for the | | | | image. Valid values are 2 to 32, and | | | | the default is 4. | +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | ``'blur'`` | *size* | Specifies the size of the kernel. Valid | | | | values are 1 or 2. | +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | ``'film'`` | *strength*, | *strength* specifies the strength of | | | *u*, *v* | effect. *u* and *v* are offsets added | | | | to the U/V plane (0 to 255). | +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | ``'watercolor'`` | *u*, *v* | *u* and *v* specify offsets to add to | | | | the U/V plane (0 to 255). | | +----------------+-----------------------------------------+ | | | No parameters indicates no U/V effect. | +--------------------+----------------+-----------------------------------------+ .. versionadded:: 1.8 """) def _get_color_effects(self): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_COLOUR_EFFECT] if mp.enable != mmal.MMAL_FALSE: return (mp.u, mp.v) else: return None def _set_color_effects(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if value is None: enable = mmal.MMAL_FALSE u = v = 128 else: enable = mmal.MMAL_TRUE try: u, v = value except (TypeError, ValueError) as e: raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid color effect (u, v) tuple: %s" % value) if not ((0 <= u <= 255) and (0 <= v <= 255)): raise PiCameraValueError( "(u, v) values must be between 0 and 255") mp = mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_COLOURFX_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_HEADER_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_COLOUR_EFFECT, ct.sizeof(mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_COLOURFX_T) ), enable, u, v ) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_COLOUR_EFFECT] = mp color_effects = property(_get_color_effects, _set_color_effects, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the current color effect applied by the camera. When queried, the :attr:`color_effects` property either returns ``None`` which indicates that the camera is using normal color settings, or a ``(u, v)`` tuple where ``u`` and ``v`` are integer values between 0 and 255. When set, the property changes the color effect applied by the camera. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. For example, to make the image black and white set the value to ``(128, 128)``. The default value is ``None``. """) def _get_rotation(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.outputs[0].params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ROTATION] def _set_rotation(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: value = ((int(value) % 360) // 90) * 90 except ValueError: raise PiCameraValueError("Invalid rotation angle: %s" % value) for port in self._camera.outputs: port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ROTATION] = value rotation = property(_get_rotation, _set_rotation, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the current rotation of the camera's image. When queried, the :attr:`rotation` property returns the rotation applied to the image. Valid values are 0, 90, 180, and 270. When set, the property changes the rotation applied to the camera's input. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``0``. """) def _get_vflip(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.outputs[0].params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_MIRROR] in ( mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_VERTICAL, mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_BOTH) def _set_vflip(self, value): self._check_camera_open() value = { (False, False): mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_NONE, (True, False): mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_VERTICAL, (False, True): mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_HORIZONTAL, (True, True): mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_BOTH, }[(bool(value), self.hflip)] for port in self._camera.outputs: port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_MIRROR] = value vflip = property(_get_vflip, _set_vflip, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets whether the camera's output is vertically flipped. When queried, the :attr:`vflip` property returns a boolean indicating whether or not the camera's output is vertically flipped. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``False``. """) def _get_hflip(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._camera.outputs[0].params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_MIRROR] in ( mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_HORIZONTAL, mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_BOTH) def _set_hflip(self, value): self._check_camera_open() value = { (False, False): mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_NONE, (True, False): mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_VERTICAL, (False, True): mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_HORIZONTAL, (True, True): mmal.MMAL_PARAM_MIRROR_BOTH, }[(self.vflip, bool(value))] for port in self._camera.outputs: port.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_MIRROR] = value hflip = property(_get_hflip, _set_hflip, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets whether the camera's output is horizontally flipped. When queried, the :attr:`hflip` property returns a boolean indicating whether or not the camera's output is horizontally flipped. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The default value is ``False``. """) def _get_zoom(self): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_INPUT_CROP] return ( mp.rect.x / 65535.0, mp.rect.y / 65535.0, mp.rect.width / 65535.0, mp.rect.height / 65535.0, ) def _set_zoom(self, value): self._check_camera_open() try: x, y, w, h = value except (TypeError, ValueError) as e: raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid zoom rectangle (x, y, w, h) tuple: %s" % value) mp = mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_INPUT_CROP_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_HEADER_T( mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_INPUT_CROP, ct.sizeof(mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_INPUT_CROP_T) ), mmal.MMAL_RECT_T( max(0, min(65535, int(65535 * x))), max(0, min(65535, int(65535 * y))), max(0, min(65535, int(65535 * w))), max(0, min(65535, int(65535 * h))), ), ) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_INPUT_CROP] = mp zoom = property(_get_zoom, _set_zoom, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the zoom applied to the camera's input. When queried, the :attr:`zoom` property returns a ``(x, y, w, h)`` tuple of floating point values ranging from 0.0 to 1.0, indicating the proportion of the image to include in the output (this is also known as the "Region of Interest" or ROI). The default value is ``(0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 1.0)`` which indicates that everything should be included. The property can be set while recordings or previews are in progress. The `zoom` is applied to the processed image, after rotation and rescale. If rotation has been used, zoom is composed of ``(y, x, h, w)`` instead. The values `w` and `h` can modify the aspect ratio of the image: use equal values for `w` and `h` if you want to keep the same the aspect ratio. """) def _get_crop(self): warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.crop is deprecated; use PiCamera.zoom instead')) return self.zoom def _set_crop(self, value): warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.crop is deprecated; use PiCamera.zoom instead')) self.zoom = value crop = property(_get_crop, _set_crop, doc=""" Retrieves or sets the zoom applied to the camera's input. .. deprecated:: 1.8 Please use the :attr:`zoom` attribute instead. """) def _get_overlays(self): self._check_camera_open() return self._overlays overlays = property(_get_overlays, doc="""\ Retrieves all active :class:`PiRenderer` overlays. If no overlays are current active, :attr:`overlays` will return an empty iterable. Otherwise, it will return an iterable of :class:`PiRenderer` instances which are currently acting as overlays. Note that the preview renderer is an exception to this: it is *not* included as an overlay despite being derived from :class:`PiRenderer`. .. versionadded:: 1.8 """) def _get_preview(self): self._check_camera_open() if isinstance(self._preview, PiPreviewRenderer): return self._preview preview = property(_get_preview, doc="""\ Retrieves the :class:`PiRenderer` displaying the camera preview. If no preview is currently active, :attr:`preview` will return ``None``. Otherwise, it will return the instance of :class:`PiRenderer` which is currently connected to the camera's preview port for rendering what the camera sees. You can use the attributes of the :class:`PiRenderer` class to configure the appearance of the preview. For example, to make the preview semi-transparent:: import picamera with picamera.PiCamera() as camera: camera.start_preview() camera.preview.alpha = 128 .. versionadded:: 1.8 """) def _get_preview_alpha(self): self._check_camera_open() warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.preview_alpha is deprecated; use ' 'PiCamera.preview.alpha instead')) if self.preview: return self.preview.alpha else: return self._preview_alpha def _set_preview_alpha(self, value): self._check_camera_open() warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.preview_alpha is deprecated; use ' 'PiCamera.preview.alpha instead')) if self.preview: self.preview.alpha = value else: self._preview_alpha = value preview_alpha = property(_get_preview_alpha, _set_preview_alpha, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the opacity of the preview window. .. deprecated:: 1.8 Please use the :attr:`~PiRenderer.alpha` attribute of the :attr:`preview` object instead. """) def _get_preview_layer(self): self._check_camera_open() warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.preview_layer is deprecated; ' 'use PiCamera.preview.layer instead')) if self.preview: return self.preview.layer else: return self._preview_layer def _set_preview_layer(self, value): self._check_camera_open() warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.preview_layer is deprecated; ' 'use PiCamera.preview.layer instead')) if self.preview: self.preview.layer = value else: self._preview_layer = value preview_layer = property(_get_preview_layer, _set_preview_layer, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the layer of the preview window. .. deprecated:: 1.8 Please use the :attr:`~PiRenderer.layer` attribute of the :attr:`preview` object instead. """) def _get_preview_fullscreen(self): self._check_camera_open() warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.preview_fullscreen is deprecated; ' 'use PiCamera.preview.fullscreen instead')) if self.preview: return self.preview.fullscreen else: return self._preview_fullscreen def _set_preview_fullscreen(self, value): self._check_camera_open() warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.preview_fullscreen is deprecated; ' 'use PiCamera.preview.fullscreen instead')) if self.preview: self.preview.fullscreen = value else: self._preview_fullscreen = value preview_fullscreen = property( _get_preview_fullscreen, _set_preview_fullscreen, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets full-screen for the preview window. .. deprecated:: 1.8 Please use the :attr:`~PiRenderer.fullscreen` attribute of the :attr:`preview` object instead. """) def _get_preview_window(self): self._check_camera_open() warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.preview_window is deprecated; ' 'use PiCamera.preview.window instead')) if self.preview: return self.preview.window else: return self._preview_window def _set_preview_window(self, value): self._check_camera_open() warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'PiCamera.preview_window is deprecated; ' 'use PiCamera.preview.window instead')) if self.preview: self.preview.window = value else: self._preview_window = value preview_window = property( _get_preview_window, _set_preview_window, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets the size of the preview window. .. deprecated:: 1.8 Please use the :attr:`~PiRenderer.window` attribute of the :attr:`preview` object instead. """) def _get_annotate_text(self): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] if mp.enable: return mp.text.decode('ascii') else: return '' def _set_annotate_text(self, value): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] mp.enable = bool(value or mp.show_frame_num) if mp.enable: try: mp.text = value.encode('ascii') except ValueError as e: raise PiCameraValueError(str(e)) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] = mp annotate_text = property(_get_annotate_text, _set_annotate_text, doc="""\ Retrieves or sets a text annotation for all output. When queried, the :attr:`annotate_text` property returns the current annotation (if no annotation has been set, this is simply a blank string). When set, the property immediately applies the annotation to the preview (if it is running) and to any future captures or video recording. Strings longer than 255 characters, or strings containing non-ASCII characters will raise a :exc:`PiCameraValueError`. The default value is ``''``. .. versionchanged:: 1.8 Text annotations can now be 255 characters long. The prior limit was 32 characters. """) def _get_annotate_frame_num(self): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] return mp.show_frame_num.value != mmal.MMAL_FALSE def _set_annotate_frame_num(self, value): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] mp.enable = bool(value or mp.text) mp.show_frame_num = bool(value) self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] = mp annotate_frame_num = property( _get_annotate_frame_num, _set_annotate_frame_num, doc="""\ Controls whether the current frame number is drawn as an annotation. The :attr:`annotate_frame_num` attribute is a bool indicating whether or not the current frame number is rendered as an annotation, similar to :attr:`annotate_text`. The default is ``False``. .. versionadded:: 1.8 """) def _get_annotate_text_size(self): self._check_camera_open() if self._camera.annotate_rev == 3: mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] return mp.text_size or self.DEFAULT_ANNOTATE_SIZE else: return self.DEFAULT_ANNOTATE_SIZE def _set_annotate_text_size(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if not (6 <= value <= 160): raise PiCameraValueError( "Invalid annotation text size: %d (valid range 6-160)" % value) if self._camera.annotate_rev == 3: mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] mp.text_size = value self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] = mp elif value != self.DEFAULT_ANNOTATE_SIZE: warnings.warn( PiCameraFallback( "Firmware does not support setting annotation text " "size; using default (%d) instead" % self.DEFAULT_ANNOTATE_SIZE)) annotate_text_size = property( _get_annotate_text_size, _set_annotate_text_size, doc="""\ Controls the size of the annotation text. The :attr:`annotate_text_size` attribute is an int which determines how large the annotation text will appear on the display. Valid values are in the range 6 to 160, inclusive. The default is {size}. .. versionadded:: 1.10 """.format(size=DEFAULT_ANNOTATE_SIZE)) def _get_annotate_foreground(self): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] if self._camera.annotate_rev == 3 and mp.custom_text_color: return Color.from_yuv_bytes( mp.custom_text_Y, mp.custom_text_U, mp.custom_text_V) else: return Color('white') def _set_annotate_foreground(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if not isinstance(value, Color): raise PiCameraValueError( 'annotate_foreground must be a Color') elif self._camera.annotate_rev < 3: if value.rgb_bytes != (255, 255, 255): warnings.warn( PiCameraFallback( "Firmware does not support setting a custom foreground " "annotation color; using white instead")) return mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] mp.custom_text_color = True ( mp.custom_text_Y, mp.custom_text_U, mp.custom_text_V, ) = value.yuv_bytes self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] = mp annotate_foreground = property( _get_annotate_foreground, _set_annotate_foreground, doc="""\ Controls the color of the annotation text. The :attr:`annotate_foreground` attribute specifies, partially, the color of the annotation text. The value is specified as a :class:`Color`. The default is white. .. note:: The underlying firmware does not directly support setting all components of the text color, only the Y' component of a `Y'UV`_ tuple. This is roughly (but not precisely) analogous to the "brightness" of a color, so you may choose to think of this as setting how bright the annotation text will be relative to its background. In order to specify just the Y' component when setting this attribute, you may choose to construct the :class:`Color` instance as follows:: camera.annotate_foreground = picamera.Color(y=0.2, u=0, v=0) .. _Y'UV: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YUV .. versionadded:: 1.10 """) def _get_annotate_background(self): self._check_camera_open() mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] if self._camera.annotate_rev == 3: if mp.enable_text_background: if mp.custom_background_color: return Color.from_yuv_bytes( mp.custom_background_Y, mp.custom_background_U, mp.custom_background_V) else: return Color('black') else: return None else: if mp.black_text_background: return Color('black') else: return None def _set_annotate_background(self, value): self._check_camera_open() if value is True: warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'Setting PiCamera.annotate_background to True is ' 'deprecated; use PiCamera.color.Color("black") instead')) value = Color('black') elif value is False: warnings.warn( PiCameraDeprecated( 'Setting PiCamera.annotate_background to False is ' 'deprecated; use None instead')) value = None elif value is None: pass elif not isinstance(value, Color): raise PiCameraValueError( 'annotate_background must be a Color or None') elif self._camera.annotate_rev < 3 and value.rgb_bytes != (0, 0, 0): warnings.warn( PiCameraFallback( "Firmware does not support setting a custom background " "annotation color; using black instead")) mp = self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] if self._camera.annotate_rev == 3: if value is None: mp.enable_text_background = False else: mp.enable_text_background = True mp.custom_background_color = True ( mp.custom_background_Y, mp.custom_background_U, mp.custom_background_V, ) = value.yuv_bytes else: if value is None: mp.black_text_background = False else: mp.black_text_background = True self._camera.control.params[mmal.MMAL_PARAMETER_ANNOTATE] = mp annotate_background = property( _get_annotate_background, _set_annotate_background, doc="""\ Controls what background is drawn behind the annotation. The :attr:`annotate_background` attribute specifies if a background will be drawn behind the :attr:`annotation text <annotate_text>` and, if so, what color it will be. The value is specified as a :class:`Color` or ``None`` if no background should be drawn. The default is ``None``. .. note:: For backward compatibility purposes, the value ``False`` will be treated as ``None``, and the value ``True`` will be treated as the color black. The "truthiness" of the values returned by the attribute are backward compatible although the values themselves are not. .. versionadded:: 1.8 .. versionchanged:: 1.10 In prior versions this was a bool value with ``True`` representing a black background. """)